ANSI ISEA Z89 1 2014 American National PDF - VSIP.INFO (2023)

ANSI/ISEA Z89.1-2014 Revision of ANSI/ISEA Z89.1-2009

American National Standard for Industrial Head Protection

Secretariat

International Safety Equipment Association

Approved May 15, 2014

American National Standards Institute, Inc.

American National Standard

An American National Standard implies a consensus of those substantially concerned with its scope and provisions. An American National Standard is intended as a guide to aid the manufacturer, the consumer, and the general public. The existence of an American National Standard does not in any respect preclude anyone, whether they have approved the standard or not, from manufacturing, marketing, purchasing, or using products, processes, or procedures not conforming to the standard. American National Standards are subject to periodic review and users are cautioned to obtain the latest editions. The American National Standards Institute does not develop standards and will in no circumstances give an interpretation of any American National Standard. Moreover, no persons shall have the right or authority to issue an interpretation of an American National Standard in the name of the American National Standards Institute. CAUTION NOTICE: This American National Standard may be revised or withdrawn at any time. The procedures of the American National Standards Institute require that action be taken to reaffirm, revise, or withdraw this standard no later than five years from the date of publication. Purchasers of American National Standards may receive current information on all standards by calling or writing the American National Standards Institute.

Published by

International Safety Equipment Association 1901 North Moore Street, Suite 808, Arlington, Virginia 22209

Copyright 2014 by International Safety Equipment Association All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form, in an electronic retrieval system or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher.

Printed in the United States of America

Foreword

(This Foreword is not part of ANSI/ISEA Z89.1-2014)

Voluntary industry consensus standards recognized by the American National Standards Institute are required to be reviewed every five years to account for improvements in technology, test methods and materials, user needs and trends in use and application of products covered under the respective standard. This seventh revision of the American National Standard for Industrial Head Protection, ANSI/ISEA Z89.1-2014 represents an effort to accommodate characteristics of industrial head protection that end-users identified as being important as work environments change and emerging hazards are identified. This edition was prepared by the ISEA Head Protection Group whose current members include: 3M Company, Bullard, ERB Industries, Gateway Safety, Honeywell Safety Products, Kimberly-Clark Professional, MSA Safety, OccuNomix International, Protective Industrial Products Inc., and Sellstrom Manufacturing Co. The core performance requirements remain unchanged. However, this updated version incorporates optional preconditioning at higher temperatures than the standard test temperatures. Head protection devices that meet the applicable product performance criteria after having been exposed to these higher temperatures will bear a unique mark indicating such, to provide easy identification to the user. This standard was processed and approved using consensus procedures prescribed by the American National Standards Institute. The following organizations were contacted prior to the approval of this standard. Inclusion in this list does not necessarily imply that the organization concurred with the submittal of the proposed standard to ANSI. Atlas Industrial Contractors Mr. James Byrnes Center to Protect Workers Rights City of San Diego Entergy INSPEC International International Safety Equipment Association International Staple, Nail and Tool Association Mr. Michael Kertis Kimberly-Clark Professional

Laborers Health and Safety Fund of North America National Electrical Contractors Association National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Oberon Company Safety Equipment Institute TAUC: The Association of Union Contractors Waste Equipment Technology Association U.S. Department of Labor – Occupational Safety and Health Administration

Suggestions for improvement of this standard are encouraged. Contact: ISEA 1901 N. Moore Street #808 Arlington, VA 22209 [emailprotected]

Contents SECTION 1

PAGE

Scope, Purpose and Limitations ................................................................................. 1 1.1 Scope .................................................................................................................. 1 1.2 Purpose ............................................................................................................... 1 1.3 Limitations ........................................................................................................... 1 1.4 Units and Tolerances .......................................................................................... 1

2

Compliance ................................................................................................................. 1

3

Definitions ................................................................................................................... 1

4

Types and Classes ..................................................................................................... 2 4.1 Impact Types ...................................................................................................... 2 4.2 Electrical Classes ............................................................................................... 2

5

Accessories and Replacement Components .............................................................. 3

6

Instructions and Markings ........................................................................................... 3

7

Performance Requirements ........................................................................................ 3 7.1 Requirements for Type I and Type II Helmets .................................................... 3 7.2 Additional Requirements for Type II Helmets ..................................................... 4 7.3 Requirements for Optional Features .................................................................. 4

8

Testing Preparation ..................................................................................................... 5 8.1 Test Sample Selection ........................................................................................ 5 8.2 Sequence of Testing ........................................................................................... 5 8.3 Testing Conditions .............................................................................................. 5 8.4 Test Sample Markings ........................................................................................ 5 8.5 Helmet Preconditioning ....................................................................................... 6 8.6 Testing Time ....................................................................................................... 6

9

Headforms .................................................................................................................. 6 9.1 General ............................................................................................................... 6 9.2 Headform Sizes .................................................................................................. 6 9.3 Headfom for Force Transmission ....................................................................... 7 9.4 Headform for Penetration Tests.......................................................................... 7 9.5 Headform for Impact Energy Attenuation Tests ................................................. 7

10

Test Methods .............................................................................................................. 7 10.1 Flammability ........................................................................................................ 7 10.2 Force Transmission ............................................................................................ 8 10.3 Apex Penetration ................................................................................................ 9 10.4 Impact Energy Attenuation ................................................................................. 9 10.5 Off-Center Penetration ...................................................................................... 11 10.6 Chin Strap Retention (Type II Only) ................................................................. 11 10.7 Electrical Insulation ........................................................................................... 12 10.8 High-Visibility Testing ....................................................................................... 13

11

Normative References .............................................................................................. 13

TABLES Table 1. Color, High Visibility Helmets ............................................................................. 4 Table 2. Sizing Chart ...................................................................................................... 14 Table 3. Schedule of Tests ............................................................................................. 15 FIGURES Figure 1. ISO Headform ................................................................................................... 17 Figure 2. Dynamic Test Line (DTL), Impact and Penetration Tests ................................ 18 Figure 3. Force Transmission Headform ......................................................................... 19 Figure 4. Typical Impact Energy Attenuation Headform Fixture ...................................... 20 Figure 5. Typical Penetration Headform Fixture .............................................................. 20 Figure 6. Typical Chin Strap Retention Test Apparatus .................................................. 21 Figure 7. Typical Force Transmission Test Apparatus .................................................... 22 Figure 8. Typical Penetration Test Apparatus.................................................................. 23 Figure 9. Penetrator ......................................................................................................... 24 Figure 10. Typical Impact Energy Attenuation Apparatus ............................................... 25 Figure 11. Static Test Line (STL), Electrical Insulation and Flammability Tests.............. 26 Figure 12. Flammability Test Apparatus .......................................................................... 26 Figure 13. Electrical Insulation Test Apparatus ............................................................... 27 APPENDICES A

Recommendations, Cautions, Use and Care ........................................................... A1

B

Electrical Insulation Testing ...................................................................................... A3

C

Force Transmission Testing...................................................................................... A4

D

Impact Energy Attenuation Testing ........................................................................... A6

ANSI/ISEA Z89.1-2014

American National Standard for Industrial Head Protection 1

Scope, Purpose and Limitations

1.1

Scope

This standard establishes minimum performance and labeling requirements for protective helmets used in industrial and occupational settings under normal temperature conditions and optionally at high and low temperatures and when worn in the reversed position. It also includes requirements for high-visibility helmets and specifies test methods for evaluating all requirements. Helmets conforming to the requirements of this standard are designated both by Type (based on location of impact force) and Class (based on electrical insulation) as well as any optional feature. This standard does not cover bump caps, firefighting helmets or head protection devices used in recreational activities. User cautions and recommendations on use and care of helmets are given in Appendix A of this standard. 1.2

Purpose

This standard establishes minimum performance requirements for protective helmets that reduce the forces of impact and penetration and that may provide protection from electric shock (not arc flash). 1.3

Limitations

Protective helmets reduce the amount of force from an impact blow but cannot provide complete head protection from severe impact and penetration. Helmets that meet this standard provide limited protection but should be effective against small tools, small pieces of wood, bolts, nuts, rivets, sparks and similar hazards. The use of protective helmets should never be viewed as a substitute for good safety practices and engineering controls. Alterations, attachments, or additions of accessories may affect the performance of the helmet. Helmets are designed to provide protection above the test lines, which are clearly defined in the standard. Helmets may extend below the test

lines for styling or practical purposes but no protection is to be implied below the test lines. 1.4

Units and Tolerances

In this standard, SI units of measurement are followed by an approximate imperial equivalent in parenthesis. Only the SI value shall be regarded as the requirement.

2

Compliance

Any statement(s) of compliance with this standard shall mean that the product meets all applicable performance and labeling requirements for the Type and Class. It is specifically intended that partial utilization of this standard is prohibited.

3

Definitions

accessory: A device intended to be mounted on or used with protective helmets. (See Section 5) apex: The point on the outer surface of the shell coincident with the vertical axis of the headform when the helmet is mounted in the asworn position according to the manufacturer's instructions. basic plane: A plane at the level of the external auditory meatus (external ear opening) and the inferior margin of the orbit (lower edge of the eye socket). chin strap: A strap which fits under the chin and is attached to the helmet. component: A functional part of a complete device addressed by the performance requirements of this standard. crown straps: The part of the suspension that passes over the head. dynamic test line (DTL): A test line used as a boundary for conducting impact energy attenuation and off-center penetration tests.

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ANSI/ISEA Z89.1-2014 flammability: The ability of a helmet shell to support combustion upon removal of the test flame. harness: The complete assembly used to maintain a helmet in correct wearing position on the wearer's head, exclusive of a chin strap or other retention device. headband: The part of the harness that encircles the head. helmet: A device worn on the head designed to provide limited protection against impact, flying particles or electric shock. manufacturer: The business entity that marks or directs the permanent marking of the components or complete device as compliant with this standard and sells them as compliant. midsagittal plane: A longitudinal plane, perpendicular to the basic plane, which passes through the vertex and geometrically bisects the head. permanent: Such as can be expected to remain present and legible throughout the expected service life of the product. positioning index: A perpendicular distance, as specified by the manufacturer, from some point on the helmet to the basic plane when the helmet is properly seated on a reference headform.

should: In this standard, use of the word "should" indicates a recommendation. suspension: The portion of the harness which is designed to act as an energy-absorbing mechanism. It may consist of crown straps, protective padding, or a similar mechanism. static test line (STL): A test line used as a boundary for conducting electrical insulation, flammability tests and for mounting for the force transmission test. test line: A line or combination of lines marked on a reference headform used to provide limits or a boundary beyond which protection is not considered. test plaque: A sample of the helmet or representative shell material with a thickness of 3 mm ± 0.5 mm (0.12 in. ± 0.02 in.).

4

Types and Classes

Protective helmets are described by impact type and electrical class. All protective helmets shall meet either Type I or Type II requirements. All helmets shall be further classified as meeting Class G, Class E, or Class C electrical requirements. 4.1

Impact Types

4.1.1 Type I

projection: Rigid features that extend or protrude beyond the normal internal or external surface or contour of the helmet.

Type I helmets are intended to reduce the force of impact resulting from a blow only to the top of the head.

protective padding: Any material used to absorb the kinetic energy of impact.

4.1.2 Type II

reference plane: A plane at a given distance above and parallel to the basic plane. reference headform: A measuring device contoured to specified dimensions with surface markings indicating the locations of the basic, midsagittal and reference planes, as well as any required test lines. shall: In this standard, use of the word "shall" indicates a mandatory requirement. shell: The part of a helmet which includes the outermost surface.

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Type II helmets are intended to reduce the force of impact resulting from a blow to the top or sides of the head. 4.2

Electrical Classes

4.2.1 Class G (General) Class G helmets are intended to reduce the danger of contact with low voltage conductors. Test samples shall be proof-tested at 2200 volts (phase to ground). This voltage is not intended as an indication of the voltage at which the helmet protects the wearer.

ANSI/ISEA Z89.1-2014 4.2.2 Class E (Electrical)

c. The American National Standard designation, ANSI/ISEA Z89.1-2014.

Class E helmets are intended to reduce the danger of contact with higher voltage conductors. Test samples are proof-tested at 20,000 volts (phase to ground). This voltage is not intended as an indication of the voltage at which the helmet protects the wearer. 4.2.3 Class C (Conductive) Class C helmets are not intended to provide protection against contact with electrical hazards.

d. The applicable Type and Class designations, followed by applicable optional criteria markings; e. The approximate headsize range (see Table 2). 6.3 If optional performance features are satisfied, the appropriate marking below shall be applied in the sequence as specified below: - Reverse donning;

5 Accessories and Replacement Components

LT - Lower temperature HV - High visibility

Accessories or replacement components, when installed, shall not cause the helmet to fail the requirements of this standard. The entity claiming that an accessory or replacement component, when installed, does not cause the helmet to fail the requirements of this standard is responsible for providing justification upon request.

6

Instructions and Marking

6.1 Each helmet shall be accompanied by manufacturers' instructions explaining the application(s) of use, proper method of size adjustment and fitting (including, if applicable, reverse wearing) and, guidelines for care and useful service life. NOTE: Useful service life guidelines are intended to provide the user with information that certain conditions may affect a specific helmet’s continued protection over time. A specific service life, defined in terms of number of years, is not required though individual manufacturers may choose to include such information for their respective helmets.

6.2 Each helmet shall bear permanent markings in at least 1.5 mm (0.06 in.) high letters stating the following information: a. Name or identification mark of the manufacturer.

HT – Higher temperature The size of the reverse donning symbol shall be large enough to be legible.

7

Performance Requirements

7.1 Requirements for Type I and Type II Helmets 7.1.1 Flammability Helmets shall be tested in accordance with Section 10.1. No flame shall be visible 5 seconds after removal of the test flame. 7.1.2 Force Transmission Helmets shall be tested in accordance with Section 10.2 and shall not transmit a force to the test headform that exceeds 4,450 N (1,000 lbf). Additionally, for each preconditioning specified, the maximum transmitted force of individual test samples shall be averaged. The averaged values shall not exceed 3,780 N (850 lbf). 7.1.3 Apex Penetration Helmets shall be tested in accordance with Section 10.3. The penetrator shall not make contact with the top of the test headform.

b. The date of manufacture.

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ANSI/ISEA Z89.1-2014 7.1.4 Electrical Insulation Requirements 7.1.4.1

General

Class G and Class E helmets shall meet their appropriate performance requirement as listed below. Class C helmets are not tested for electrical insulation. 7.1.4.2

Class G Requirements

Class G helmets shall be tested in accordance with Section 10.7 and shall withstand 2,200 volts (root mean square) AC, 60 hertz, for 1 minute. Leakage shall not exceed 3 milliamperes. 7.1.4.3

Class E Requirements

After first passing the force transmission test specified in Section 7.1.2, Class E helmets shall be tested in accordance with Section 10.7 and shall withstand 20,000 volts (root mean square) AC, 60 hertz, for 3 minutes. Leakage shall not exceed 9 milliamperes.

elongation of the strap shall not exceed 25 mm (1.0 in.). 7.3

Requirements for Optional Features

7.3.1 Reverse Wearing Type I Helmets that are to be marked with the reverse wearing marking shall pass the force transmission test when mounted in the reverse position on the headform. Type II Helmets that are to be marked with the reverse wearing mark shall pass the force transmission, impact attenuation, and off-center penetration tests when mounted in the reverse wearing position on the test headform. 7.3.2 High-Visibility When measured in accordance with Section 10.8, helmets marked “HV” for high-visibility shall demonstrate, for the appropriate color in Table 1:

At 30,000 volts, the test sample shall not burn through.

a. Chromaticity that lies within one of the sets of coordinates in Table 1

7.2 Additional Requirements for Type II Helmets

b. Total luminance factor (Y expressed as a percentage) that meets or exceeds the corresponding minimum value in Table 1.

7.2.1 Impact Energy Attenuation Type II helmets shall be tested in accordance with Section 10.4. Maximum acceleration shall not exceed 150g.

Table 1. Color, High-Visibility Helmets Color

7.2.2 Off-center Penetration Type II helmets shall be tested in accordance with Section 10.5. For each helmet tested, the penetrator shall not make contact with the test headform. 7.2.3 Chin Strap Chin straps shall be made of material not less than 12.7 mm (0.50 in.) in width. Type II helmets which are provided with chin straps shall be tested for retention in accordance with Section 10.6. For each helmet tested,, the chin strap shall remain attached to the helmet. The residual

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Fluorescent yellow-green Fluorescent orange-red Fluorescent red

Chromaticity coordinates x 0.387 0.356 0.398 0.460 0.610 0.535 0.570 0.655 0.655 0.570 0.595 0.690

y 0.610 0.494 0.452 0.540 0.390 0.375 0.340 0.344 0.344 0.340 0.315 0.310

Minimum total luminance factor Y (%) 70

40

25

ANSI/ISEA Z89.1-2014

7.3.3 Higher temperature When preconditioned in accordance with Section 8.5.3, helmets marked “HT” for higher temperature shall meet all testing and marking requirements applicable to the Type and Class of the helmet. 7.3.4 Lower temperature When preconditioned in accordance with Section 8.5.5, helmets marked “LT” for lower temperature shall meet all testing and marking requirements applicable to the Type and Class of the helmet.

8 8.1

Testing Preparation Test Sample Selection

8.1.1 A minimum of 30 test samples is required for compliance testing in accordance with the performance requirements of Section 7. 8.1.2 A minimum of 36 test samples is required for compliance testing for helmets that are to be marked for wearing in the reverse position. 8.1.3 It is not intended that the testing schedule given in Table 3 be used for a manufacturer’s quality assurance program. 8.2

Sequence of Testing

Testing shall be conducted in accordance with the testing schedule given in Table 3. Some test samples may be used for performing more than one test. Helmets meeting the requirements of this standard are intended to provide protection against only one blow (impact and/or penetration). If a test sample fails to meet the requirements of a given test (with the exception of Class E electrical insulation test) and the sample has previously been subjected to an impact or penetration test, a new helmet shall be tested to verify the "failing" result of that particular test. Should the new helmet meet the test requirements, then the "failing" result shall be discounted. 8.3

Testing Conditions

All testing and sample marking shall be performed at room temperature 23°C  3°C (73.4°F  5.4°F). If there is a disagreement in

the test results among different laboratories, the helmets shall be re-tested at a controlled relative humidity of 50  5 %. 8.4

Test Sample Markings

8.4.1 General Test samples shall be marked to indicate the location of the Static Test Line (STL) and Dynamic Test Line (DTL). The largest size of ISO headform appropriate for the helmet being tested, whose circumference is not greater than the internal circumference of the helmet headband when adjusted to its largest setting, shall be used. If no headband is provided, the corresponding interior surface circumference of the helmet shall be used to determine the appropriate headform. Once the appropriate reference headform is chosen, the test samples shall be adjusted to provide a snug, but not tight, fit on the headform. NOTE: There is no requirement for helmets to cover down to the STL or DTL. 8.4.2 Dynamic Test Line (DTL) Marking Procedure Seat the headform firmly with the basic plane being horizontal. Place the test sample on the headform, centered laterally oriented in the normal wearing position, and seated firmly according to its positioning index. For samples that are marked to be worn in the reverse position, install the headband in the shell according to the manufacturer’s wearing instructions for reverse donning. Place the sample on the headform, centered laterally, rotated 180 degrees from the normal wearing position along the basic plane of the headform, and seated firmly accordingly to the manufacturer’s positioning index. Apply a 50  2 N (11  0.45 lb) static force normal to the helmet's apex. Maintaining the force and position described above, draw a line on the outer surface of the helmet coinciding with the intersections of the helmet surface and the following planes, as defined in Figure 2: a. A plane "k" mm above and parallel to the reference plane in the anterior portion of the reference headform.

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ANSI/ISEA Z89.1-2014 b. A vertical transverse plane "b" mm behind the center of the central vertical axis in a side view. c. A plane "j" mm above and parallel to the reference plane in the posterior portion of the reference headform. One sample marked with the DTL for normal wearing and one marked with the DTL for the reverse wearing option should suffice for use in setting up the subsequent testing. 8.4.3 Static Test Line (STL) Marking Procedure Secure the headform with the basic plane being horizontal. Place the test sample on the headform, centered laterally, leveled side-to-side and seated firmly according to its positioning index. Apply a 50  2 N (11  0.45 lb) static force normal to the helmet's apex. Maintaining the force and position described above, draw a line on the outer surface of the helmet coinciding with the dimensions shown in Figure 11. 8.5

Helmet Preconditioning

8.5.1 Preconditioning Environments Test samples shall be preconditioned prior to performing the impact, penetration and chin strap retention tests. 8.5.2

Hot

Place test samples in a forced air circulating oven maintained at 49°C  2°C (120°F  3.6°F) for at least two hours. Place all samples horizontal and in such a manner as to not block the flow of circulating air, at least 5 cm (2.9 in.) from any internal oven wall. 8.5.3

Higher Temperature (Optional)

As an alternative to hot preconditioning as specified in Section 8.5.2, higher temperature preconditioning may be used. Place test samples in a forced air circulating oven maintained at 60°C  2°C (140°F  3.6°F) for at least four hours.

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8.5.4

Cold

Place test samples in a freezer maintained at 18°C  2°C (0°F  3.6°F) for at least two hours. 8.5.5

Lower Temperature (Optional)

As an alternative to cold preconditioning as specified in Section 8.5.4, lower temperature preconditioning may be used. Place test samples in a freezer maintained at –30°C ± 2°C (-22°F ± 3.6°F) for at least four hours with the base of the helmet facing upward (i.e., above the crown). 8.5.6

Wet

Submerge test sample in fresh tap water maintained at 23°C  3°C (73.4°F  5.4°F) for at least two hours. 8.6

Testing Time

8.6.1 Hot-, cold-, higher- and lower-temperature preconditioned samples shall be tested for impact and penetration within 30 seconds after their removal from the conditioning environment. 8.6.2 Hot-, cold-, higher- and lower-temperature preconditioned samples shall be tested for chin strap retention within 60 seconds after their removal from the conditioning environment. 8.6.3 Wet samples shall be withdrawn from the water bath and positioned upright and horizontal for a maximum of 30 seconds to allow excess water to drain. The wet samples shall then be mounted on the applicable test apparatus and tested within 90 seconds from their removal of the water bath.

9

Headforms

9.1

General

Only that part of the headform above the reference plane is intended to represent the human head. Damaged or deformed headforms shall not be used. 9.2

Headform Sizes

The ISEA headform size 7 shall be used for the force transmission test.

ANSI/ISEA Z89.1-2014 For all other tests, one of three sizes of ISO headforms described in ISO/DIS 6220 shall be used. If headform size is not specified by the manufacturer, the testing facility is to decide the most suitable size (See Figure 1).

b. Bunsen burner with a 10 mm (0.4 in.) bore.

9.3

c.

Headform for Force Transmission

The headform used for the force transmission test (Section 7.1.2) shall be the "ISEA standard headform,” size 7 (approximate dimensions are contained in Figure 3 for reference only). The headform shall be made of low-resonance magnesium K-1A, or aluminum. The mass of the headform shall be 3.64 kg  0.45 kg (8 lb  1 lb). 9.4

Headform for Penetration Tests

A headform as specified in ISO/DIS 6220 and made from electrically conductive material shall be used for the apex penetration test (Section 7.1.3) and the off-center penetration test (Section 7.2.2) and shall be mounted on a ball joint so it can be pivoted into various positions. 9.5 Headform for Impact Energy Attenuation Tests An ISO headform used for the impact energy attenuation test (Section 7.2.1), shall be made of a low resonance material such as cast silica urethane, and have a Shore "D" durometer of 60  6. The headform, together with its supporting assemblies, shall have a mass of 5.0 kg  0.05 kg (11 lb  0.1 lb), with the center of gravity roughly corresponding to the center of the mounting ball.

10

Test Methods

10.1 Flammability 10.1.1

Preparation of Test Samples

Test samples shall be marked in accordance with Section 8. 10.1.2

Apparatus

The test apparatus shall consist of the following components: a. A laboratory test stand of sufficient size and strength to hold the test sample in an asworn, upright position (see Figure 12). The

stand, including the attached test sample, shall be placed inside a draft free fume hood.

Source of gas. The use of natural methane (laboratory grade) gas with a heat content of 1000 BTU  100 BTU per cubic foot is recommended.

d. Gas regulator. e. Timing device. f.

Temperature measurement device.

10.1.3

Calibration

Use a temperature measurement device to verify the temperature of the Bunsen burner flame. With the Bunsen burner in a vertical position, adjust it to produce a 50 mm (2.0 in.) blue flame with an inner cone of 25 mm (1.0 in.). Using the temperature probe, measure the temperature of the flame at the tip of the inner cone. It shall be 800 – 900°C (1472 – 1652°F). 10.1.4

Test Procedures

Attach the test sample to the laboratory test stand so that it is held in an as-worn, upright position (see Figure 12). Choose any point on the outer surface of the helmet above the STL and apply the flame of the Bunsen burner such that the tip of the inner cone is within 2 mm (0.08 in.) from the helmet surface. The Bunsen burner shall be held with its barrel horizontal. Apply the flame to the chosen test point for 5 seconds +1 second, -0 second, then remove the flame. Inspect the test sample for any visible flame 5 seconds after removal of the test flame. 10.1.5

Recording

Record results as "pass" or "fail” based on whether any flame is visible 5 seconds after removal of the test flame. 10.2 Force Transmission 10.2.1

Preparation of Test Samples

Test samples shall be preconditioned according to Section 8.5.

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ANSI/ISEA Z89.1-2014 10.2.2

Apparatus

The test apparatus shall consist of the following components: a. Test headform specified in Section 9.3. b

Headform mounting fixture. See Figure 3.

c.

Electronic load cell and velocity indicator. The load cell system shall conform to the following requirements: Accuracy =  2.5% Full Scale Rigidity > 4.5 x 10 9 N/m (2.6 x 107 lb/ft) Resonant Frequency = 5 kHz Min.

A system known to work is detailed in Appendix C. d. Impactor having a mass of 3.60 kg  0.05 kg (8 lb  0.1 lb). The striking face of the impactor shall be spherical with a radius of 48 mm ± 8 mm (1.9 in.  0.3 in.) and a minimum chord length of 76 mm (3.0 in.). The impactor shall be constructed in such a manner that it will remain rigid upon impact (single degree of freedom system). e. Vertical drop guide mechanism f.

Electronic signal conditioning and recording equipment.

A typical test setup is shown in Figure 7. The headform mounting fixture is shown in Figure 3. The correctly mounted load cell assembly shall be mounted between the headform and a steel plate at least 25 mm (1.0 in.) thick and at least 0.3 m (1 ft) square. The plate shall be bolted down to, and in intimate contact with, a concrete (or material of similar density) base that measures approximately 1 x 1 x 0.3 m (3 x 3 x 1 ft). The plate shall be leveled with a precision level to  1° of horizontal. The center of the impactor, the center of the headform, and the center of the load cell shall be co-linear as measured by a plumb bob. The alignment tolerance shall be 3 mm (0.12 in.).

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10.2.3

Mounting

Where the crown clearance is adjustable, the helmet shall be mounted with the least amount of clearance. Using the ISEA headform (as specified in Section 9.3), mount the test sample with the STL horizontal and oriented in its normal wearing position. Align the impactor along the central vertical axis of the headform. For the samples to be tested in the reverse wearing position, the headband is to be installed in the shell according to the manufacturer’s wearing instructions for reverse wearing. Place the sample on the headform with the STL horizontal, and rotated 180 degrees in the plane of the STL from the normal wearing position, and seated firmly accordingly to the manufacturer’s positioning index. 10.2.4

Calibration

The instrumentation shall be stabilized and calibrated. A suggested method(s) for calibration is included in Appendix C2. The equipment shall be checked for repeatability before and after each series of tests by impacting a standardized elastomeric shock pad as specified in the Appendix C3. A minimum of three such impacts shall be recorded before and after testing. If the post-test average readings of the three impacts differ from the pre-test average by more than 5%, the entire test series shall be discarded. 10.2.5

Test Procedures

Remove test samples per Table 3, Schedule of Tests from the conditioning environment one at a time and place on the test headform according to Section 10.2.3. Zero the electronic recording device after a test sample is placed on the headform but before the impact. Drop the impactor from a height that yields an impact velocity of 5.50 m/s  0.05 m/s (18 ft/s  0.16 ft/s). 10.2.6

Recording

Record the individual maximum force readings for all test samples along with the impact velocities. Calculate and record the average values for hot preconditioned test samples. Calculate and record the average values for cold

ANSI/ISEA Z89.1-2014 preconditioned, or optionally low temperature test samples 10.3 Apex Penetration 10.3.1

Preparation of Test Samples

The test samples shall be preconditioned according to Section 8.5. 10.3.2

Apparatus

The test apparatus shall consist of the following components: a. Test headform specified in Section 9.4. b. Headform mounting fixture as shown in Figure 5. c.

Electronic contact indicator and velocity indicator.

d. Penetrator having a mass of 1.0 kg  0.05 kg (2.2 lb  0.1 lb) with a steel tip, a 60°  1° included angle and a spherical tip radius of 0.25 mm  0.10 mm (0.010 in.  0.004 in.). A typical penetrator configuration is shown in Figure 9. e. Vertical drop guide mechanism. f. Electronic recording equipment. A typical test setup is shown in Figure 8. The headform may be swiveled about the ball to any position that would allow the penetrator to strike the helmet perpendicularly anywhere within a 75 mm (3.0 in.) diameter circle about the apex of the helmet. The penetrator shall be constructed in such a manner that it will remain rigid upon impact (single degree of freedom system). The penetrator shall be guided and electrically insulated from the metal headform. The size of the base shall be as specified in Section 10.2.2. Wires shall be attached to the impactor and headform such that if the impactor makes contact with the headform a low voltage electric circuit is completed. A suitable means of verifying said completed circuit can be obtained by use of an oscillographic recording.

10.3.3

Mounting

Use the largest size headform (as specified in Section 9.2) appropriate for helmet being tested. Mount the helmet with the STL parallel with the basic plane of the headform and with the axis of the penetrator aligned with the center of the mounting ball of the headform. 10.3.4

Calibration

Before and after testing, contact of the penetrator with the headform shall be made to assure that the electric circuit, when completed, is properly recorded by the recording device. 10.3.5

Test Procedures

Remove test samples per Table 3, Schedule of Tests from the conditioning environment one at a time and place on the test headform according to Section 10.3.3. Drop the impactor from a height that yields an impact velocity of 7.0 m/s  0.1 m/s (23 ft/s  0.3 ft/s). 10.3.6

Recording

Record the impact velocity associated with each drop. Data recording for penetration is "pass" or "fail" based on any indicated electrical contact. 10.4 Impact Energy Attenuation 10.4.1

Preparation of Test Samples

Test samples shall be marked according to Section 8.4.2 and preconditioned according to Section 8.5. 10.4.2

Apparatus

The test apparatus shall consist of the following components: a. Test headform specified in Section 9.5. The headform along with its associated vertical drop guide mechanism shall have a mass of 5.00 kg  0.05 kg (11 lb  0.1 lb) and be constructed in such a manner that it will remain rigid upon impact (single degree of freedom system). b. Vertical drop guide mechanism. The headform supporting assembly (vertical drop guide mechanism) shall not exceed 25% of the mass of the total drop assembly. The

Page 9

ANSI/ISEA Z89.1-2014 center of gravity of the total drop assembly shall lie within a cone with its axis vertical, a 10° included angle, and with the vertex as the point of impact. c.

Uniaxial or triaxial accelerometer, mounted at the approximate center of gravity of the combined test headform and vertical drop guide mechanism inside the headform mounting ball. The axis of the uniaxial accelerometer, or the vertical axes of a triaxial accelerometer, shall be aligned within 2.5 degrees of vertical. The accelerometer is connected to the signal conditioning/ recording instrumentation. The acceleration data channels shall comply with the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Recommended Practice J211 requirements for channel class 1000. The accelerometer/ recording system shall conform to the following requirements: Accuracy =  2.5% Full Scale Transverse Sensitivity = 3% max. Resonant Frequency = 5 kHz min. A system known to work is detailed in Appendix D.

d. Hemispherical impact anvil constructed of steel. The anvil shall be a spherical segment having a radius of 48 mm ± 8 mm (1.9 in  0.3 in.) and a chord length of 76 mm (3.0 in.). The test anvil shall be rigidly mounted to a solid mass of at least 135 kg (300 lb) consisting of a steel plate at least 25 mm (1.0 in.) thick and at least 0.3 m (1 ft) square, bolted to and in intimate contact with a concrete block (or equivalent). e. Electronic signal conditioning and recording instrumentation. f.

Velocity indicator.

A typical test setup is shown in Figure 10 and the headform/vertical drop guide mechanism is shown in Figure 4. 10.4.3

Mounting

Use the largest size test headform (as specified in Section 9.2) appropriate to the helmet being

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tested. Set up the test so that the edge of the anvil does not extend below the DTL line of the helmet. Mount the headform as required for the anvil to strike the test sample anywhere above the DTL. The center of the accelerometer mounting hole, which will typically be the center of the headform mounting ball, shall be in vertical alignment with the center of the anvil within 10 mm (0.38 in.). The impact shall be as normal to the surface as the contour of the shell will permit. If there are projections on the helmet’s outer surface above the DTL or internal projections inside the helmet above the DTL, the helmet shall be impacted directly on one of the projections. Mount the test sample in its normal wearing position on the headform with the STL parallel to the basic plane of the headform. For the samples to be tested in the reverse wearing position, the headband is to be installed in the shell according to the manufacturer’s wearing instructions for reverse donning. Place the sample on the headform with the STL parallel to the basic plane of the headform, and rotated 180 degrees in the basic plane from its normal wearing position, and seat firmly accordingly to the manufacturer’s positioning index. 10.4.4

Calibration

The instrumentation shall be stabilized and calibrated. A suggested method(s) for calibration is included in Appendix D2. The equipment shall be checked for repeatability before and after each series of tests by impacting a standardized elastomeric shock pad as specified in the Appendix D3. A minimum of three such impacts shall be recorded before and after testing. If the post-test average readings of the three impacts differ from the pre-test average by more than 5%, the entire test series shall be discarded. 10.4.5

Test Procedures

Remove test samples per Table 3, Schedule of Tests from the conditioning environment one at a time and mount on the test headform according to Section 10.4.3. Zero the electronic recording device after a helmet is placed on the headform but before the impact. Drop the helmeted headform from a height that yields an

ANSI/ISEA Z89.1-2014 impact velocity of 3.5 m/s  0.1 m/s (11.5 ft/s  0.3 ft/s) as measured by the velocity indicator.

impactor from a height that yields an impact velocity of 5.0 m/s  0.1 m/s (16.4 ft/s  0.3 ft/s).

10.4.5 Recording

Test helmets at each condition at four locations: front, side, rear and anywhere on the shell above the DTL.

Record the maximum g value for each test along with its associated impact velocity. 10.5 Off-Center Penetration 10.5.1

Preparation of Test Samples

Test samples shall be marked according to Section 8.4 and preconditioned according to Section 8.5. 10.5.2

Apparatus

For each test sample, drop the impactor at two sites, each at a different location on the helmet. The second impact shall be separated from the previous impact by a distance not less than 1/5 of the STL curve length. Recondition the sample for a minimum of 15 minutes prior to the additional impact. In the case of failure, use a new sample to repeat the impact.

The test apparatus shall be identical to that specified in Section 10.3 except that the headform may be rotated to facilitate striking the test samples anywhere above the DTL.

NOTE: Striking directly on external projections is not recommended due to the possibility of glancing blows.

10.5.3

Record the impact velocity associated with each drop. Data recording for penetration is "pass" or "fail" based on any indicated electrical contact.

Mounting

Use the largest size headform (as specified in Section 9.2) appropriate for helmet being tested Mount the helmet in the normal wearing position with the STL parallel with the basic plane of the headform and with the axis of the penetrator aligned with the center of the mounting ball of the headform. For the samples to be tested in the reverse wearing position, the headband is to be installed in the shell according to the manufacturer’s wearing instructions. Then place the sample on the headform with the STL parallel to the basic plane of the headform, and rotated 180 degrees in the basic plane from its normal wearing position, and seated firmly according to the manufacturer’s positioning index. 10.5.4

Calibration

Before and after testing, contact of the penetrator with the headform shall be made to assure that the electric circuit, when completed, is properly recorded by the recording device. 10.5.5

Test Procedures

Remove test samples per Table 3, Schedule of Tests from the conditioning environment one at a time and place on the test headform. Drop the

10.5.6

Recording

10.6 Chin Strap Retention (Type II only) 10.6.1

Preparation of Test Samples

If the helmet is provided with a chin strap, test samples shall be preconditioned according to Section 8.5 including the attached chin straps. 10.6.2

Apparatus

The test apparatus shall consist following components: a. Test headform. b. Headform mounting fixture. c. Test stand. d. Chin strap stirrup/pre-load assembly. The chin strap stirrup approximates the shape of the bone structure of the lower jaw and consists of two metal rollers, each 12.5 mm  0.5 mm (0.5 in.  0.02 in.) in diameter and at a center separation of 76.0 mm  0.5 mm (3.0 in.  0.02 in.). The stirrup shall be attached to a pre-load assembly such that the total mass of the stirrup and pre-load assembly shall be 1.50 kg  0.05 kg (3.3 lb 

Page 11

ANSI/ISEA Z89.1-2014 0.1 lb). The assembly shall slide freely in the vertical direction within the test stand. e. Displacement scale. f.

Release mechanism.

a. A vessel containing fresh tap water, of sufficient size to immerse the inverted helmet to the water line. b. A frame for suspending the test sample in the water.

g. Drop mass. The drop mass shall also slide freely upon the pre-load assembly and shall have a mass of 10.00 kg  0.05 kg (22.2 lb  0.1 lb).

c.

A typical test setup is shown in Figure 6.

d. Wiring and terminals for application of voltage across the crown of the test sample.

10.6.3 Calibration Check the pre-load assembly and drop mass for freedom of movement before each use. 10.6.4

Test Procedures

Mount the test samples per Table 3, Schedule of Tests on the headform and thread the chin strap around the stirrup while holding the drop mass so that it does not interfere with the pre-load assembly. Adjust the chin strap that the stirrup rollers are approximately in line with the pre-load adjustment point specified in Figure 6. Zero the deflection scale with the 1.5 kg (3.3 lb) pre-load assembly in place. Drop the drop mass onto the pre-load assembly from 10.0 cm  0.5 cm (4.0 in.  0.2 in.). Record a deflection reading neither less than 15 nor more than 30 seconds after impact. 10.6.5

Recording

Record the deflection (residual elongation) value for each test sample. 10.7 Electrical Insulation 10.7.1

Preparation of Test Samples

Test samples tested for Class E requirements shall first be subjected to the force transmission test, one preconditioned hot or higher temperature and one preconditioned cold or lower temperature. 10.7.2

Apparatus

The test apparatus shall consist of the following components:

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A source of 60-Hertz alternating current variable from 0 to 30,000 volts (root mean square voltage) with at least a 20milliampere capability at 20,000 volts.

e. A voltmeter of sufficient capacity and accuracy to measure the specified voltages. f.

A milliammeter of sufficient capacity and accuracy to measure the specified currents.

A typical test set up is shown in Figure 13. 10.7.3

Calibration

Voltmeters and milliammeters shall be in calibration. 10.7.4

Test Procedures

Ensure that the STL is visible (Section 8.2.2). Permanently attached helmet accessories (including welding helmet brackets, lamp brackets, chin straps, etc.) shall be retained on the test samples during testing. Position nonremovable chin straps such that they do not complete the electrical circuit or otherwise interfere with the test. 10.7.4.1 Class G Testing While holding the test sample in the inverted position, fill with fresh tap water up to the STL; unless the helmet contains holes in the shell for mounting the suspension, in which case it shall be filled to 12.7 mm (0.5 in.) of those holes. No special provisions shall be made for any accessory mounting holes above the plane of the suspension mounting holes. If holes are provided for ventilation purposes and such holes can be closed, testing shall be done with holes in the open position. Submerge the test sample in the same type of water and to the same level as the water on the inside of the helmet. Attach the voltmeter and the milliammeter shall be attached to the circuit. Take care to keep the unsubmerged portion of the test sample dry so

ANSI/ISEA Z89.1-2014 that flash over will not occur when voltage is applied. Apply the voltage, increase to 2200 volts, and hold for one minute. Record the current leakage. 10.7.4.2 Class E Testing Fill the inside of the test sample with fresh tap water up to the STL, or to a lower level but no lower than is required to prevent flash over at the test voltage. Submerge the test sample in the same type of water and to the same level as the water on the inside of the test sample. Attach the voltmeter and milliammeter to the circuit. Take care to keep the unsubmerged portion of the test sample dry so that flash over will not occur when voltage is applied. Apply the voltage, increase to 20,000 volts, and hold for not less than three minutes. Record the current leakage.

b. Use illumination D65 and 45/0 or 0/45 geometry with 2 standard observer and a black underlay with a reflectance of less than 0.04. 10.8.3 Calibration The spectrophotometer shall be calibrated in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions. 10.8.4 Recording Record the values measured in Section 10.8.2.

11

Normative References

The following standards contain provisions that, through reference in this text, constitute provisions of this American National Standard: ASTM E1164–09a Colorimetry - Standard Practice for Obtaining Spectrophotometric Data for Object-Color Evaluation

Next, test the test sample for burn-through by further increasing the voltage to 30,000 at the rate of 1000 volts per second and then immediately reducing the voltage to zero.

ISO/DIS 6220-1983, Draft International Standard - Headforms for Use in the Testing of Protective Helmets

10.7.5

SAE J 211-1, 2007, Instrumentation for Impact Test, Part 1, Electronic Instrumentation

Recording

For each test sample, record the leakage current and/or any evidence of burn-through. 10.8 High-Visibility Testing 10.8.1 Sampling and Conditioning One test plaque shall be tested. The test plaque shall be conditioned for at least 24 hours at 20 ± 2 C (68 ± 2 F) and 65 ± 5 % relative humidity. If testing is carried out in other conditions, the test shall be conducted within 5 minutes after withdrawal from the conditioning atmosphere. 10.8.2 Determination of Color The color shall be measured in accordance with the procedures defined in ASTM E1164–09a with the following conditions: a. Set the spectrophotometer at a wavelength range of 400-700 nm and at intervals of 10 nm as stated in paragraph 7.3.1.2 of ASTM E1164, and

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ANSI/ISEA Z89.1-2014

Table 2 – Sizing Chart HAT SIZE 6-1/2 6-5/8 6-3/4 6-7/8 7 7-1/8 7-1/4 7-3/8 7-1/2 7-5/8 7-3/4 7-7/8 8 8-1/8 8-1/4 8-3/8 8-1/2

Centimeters 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68

CIRCUMFERENCE

Inches 20-1/2 20-7/8 21-1/4 21-5/8 22 22-3/8 22-3/4 23-1/8 23-1/2 23-7/8 24-1/4 24-5/8 25 25-3/8 25-3/4 26-1/8 26-1/2

Note: This table is intended for sizing guidance of round head bands only and should not be construed as prohibiting larger or smaller headbands.

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ANSI/ISEA Z89.1-2014

Table 3 – Schedule of Tests Test Method

10.1 Flammability

Minimum Number Of Samples

Test Sample Numbers

1

12

4

4

3

7

7

6

12 12

1-12 13-24

2

1

1

2

1

1

3 3

31-33 34-36

2

1

1

2

1

1

3 3

25-27 28-30

3

3

2

3

3

2

4 4 4

2-5 14-17 6,7,18,19

4

4

3

1 1 1

31 32 34

2

1

2 2 2

8,9 20,21 10,22

5

5

1 1 1

33 35 36

2

1

1 1 1

11 13 23

6

6

2 2 2 2

1, 13 1, 13 1, 24 1, 24

Test Sequence by Helmet Type & Class IG IE IC IIG IIE IIC

10.2 Force Transmission Hot or Higher Temperature Cold or Lower Temperature 10.2 Force Transmission (reverse wearing) Hot or Higher Temperature Cold or Lower Temperature 10.3 Apex Penetration Hot or Higher Temperature Cold or Lower Temperature 10.4 Impact Energy Attenuation Hot or Higher Temperature Cold or Lower Temperature Wet 10.4 Impact Energy Attenuation (reverse wearing) Hot or Higher Temperature Cold or Lower Temperature Wet

1

10.5 Off Center Penetration Hot or Higher Temperature Cold or Lower Temperature Wet

4

10.5 Off Center Penetration (reverse wearing) Hot or Higher Temperature Cold or Lower Temperature Wet

1

10.6 Chin Strap Retention Hot or Higher Temperature Cold or Lower Temperature Wet

5

10.7 Electrical Insulation a) b) a) b)

2.2 KV Type I 20 KV Type I 2.2 KV Type II 20 KV Type II

1

2

1

2

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ANSI/ISEA Z89.1-2014 Table 3 - Schedule of Tests (cont) Type I, Class G Helmets Sample numbers 1 and 13 should be used for the electrical insulation test. Next, sample numbers 1–24 should be subjected to the force transmission test. Sample numbers 25-30 should be subjected to the apex penetration test. The flammability test should be performed using sample number 12. Type I, Class E Helmets Sample numbers 1–24 should be subjected to the force transmission test. Sample numbers 1 and 13 should then be used for the electrical insulation test. Sample numbers 25-30 should be subjected to the apex penetration test. The flammability test should be performed using sample number 12. Type I, Class C Helmets Type I, Class C helmets should be tested similarly to Type I, Class G and Type I, Class E helmets except the electrical insulation tests are not performed. Type II, Class G Helmets Sample numbers 1 and 24 should be used for the electrical insulation test. Next, sample numbers 1–24 should be subjected to the force transmission test. Sample numbers 25-30 should be subjected to the apex penetration test. Next, sample numbers 2-7 and 14-19 should be subjected to the impact energy attenuation test. Sample numbers 8-10 and 20-22 should then be subjected to the off-center penetration test. If the helmet is provided with a chin strap, then sample numbers 11, 13 and 23 should be used to perform the chin strap retention test. The flammability test should be performed on sample number 12. Type II, Class E Helmets Type II, Class E helmets should be tested similarly to Type II, Class G helmets except test samples 1 and 24 should be subjected to the force transmission test before conducting the electrical insulation test instead of after the electrical insulation test. Type II, Class C Helmets Type II, Class C helmets should be tested similarly to Type II, Class G and Type II, Class E helmets except the electrical insulation tests are not performed. Reverse Wearing for Type I and Type II Helmets Sample numbers 31–36 should be subjected to the force transmission test in the reverse wearing position. Samples numbers 31, 32, and 34 should then be subjected to the impact energy attenuation test and samples numbers 33, 35, and 36 should be subjected to the off-center penetration testing in the reverse wearing mounting position.

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Figure 1 – ISO Headform

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Figure 2 – Dynamic Test Line (DTL) Impact and Penetration Tests

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Dimensions are approximate

Figure 3 – Force Transmission Headform

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Figure 4 – Typical Impact Energy Attenuation Headform Fixture (all dimensions for reference only)

Figure 5 – Typical Penetration Headform Fixture

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Figure 6 – Typical Chin Strap Retention Test Apparatus

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Figure 7 – Typical Force Transmission Test Apparatus

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Figure 8 – Typical Penetration Test Apparatus

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Figure 9 –Penetrator

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Figure 10 – Typical Impact Energy Attenuation Test Apparatus

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Figure 11 – Static Test Line (STL) Electrical Insulation and Flammability Tests

Figure 12 – Flammability Test Apparatus

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Figure 13 – Electrical Insulation Test Apparatus

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ANSI/ISEA Z89.1-2014

Appendices

The following appendices not part of American National Standard ANSI/ISEA Z89.1-201x, but are included for information only.

Appendix A (informative) Recommendations, Cautions, Use, and Care A1. Instructions and Warnings All instructions, warnings, precautions and limitations given by the manufacturer should always be transmitted to the wearer and care should be taken to see that such precautions and limitations are strictly observed. Helmets whose markings (as defined in Section 6.2 of this standard) are missing or obliterated should not be used. A2. Fitting Some helmets are designed to fit one size while others are adjustable. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions for proper fitting procedures. A3. Cleaning Shells should be cleaned following the manufacturer’s instructions. The helmet should be carefully inspected for any signs of damage. A4. Painting Caution should be exercised if shells are to be painted, since some paints and thinners may attack and damage the shell and reduce protection. The helmet manufacturer should be consulted with regard to paints or cleaning materials. A5. Inspection All components and accessories, if any, should be visually inspected prior to each use for signs of dents, cracks, penetration, and any damage due to impact, rough treatment, or wear that might reduce the degree of protection originally provided. A helmet with worn, damaged or defective parts should be removed from service. A6. Limitation of Protection Users are cautioned that if unusual conditions prevail (for example, higher or lower extremes of temperature than those described), or if there are signs of abuse of or damage to the helmet or of any component, the degree of protection may be reduced. Any helmet that has received an impact should be removed from service, since the impact may have substantially reduced the ability of the helmet to continue to offer protection. NOTE: Certain helmet materials may be susceptible to damage from ultraviolet light and chemical degradation. Periodic examinations should be made of all protective helmets and, in particular, those worn or stored in areas exposed to sunlight for long periods. Ultraviolet degradation may first manifest itself in a loss of surface gloss, called chalking or discoloration. Upon further degradation, the surface will craze or flake away, or both. At the first appearance of any of these phenomena, the shell should be replaced.

Page A1

ANSI/ISEA Z89.1-2014 A7. Precautions Because helmets can be damaged, they should not be abused. They should be kept free from abrasions, scrapes, and nicks and should not be dropped, thrown, or used as supports. This applies especially to helmets that are intended to afford protection against electrical hazards. Industrial protective helmets should not be stored or carried on the rear window shelf of an automobile, since sunlight and extreme heat may cause degradation that will adversely affect the degree of protection they provide. Also, in the case of an emergency stop or accident, the helmet might become a hazardous impactor. Users should exercise extreme care in the selection and installation of accessories. The addition of accessories to the helmet may adversely affect the level of protection. The user should make sure that any accessory is compatible with the helmet. Contact the helmet or accessory manufacturer for compatibility information. Users should never alter or modify the helmet (e.g. drill, glue, cut, etc.) to accept accessories unless instructed to do so by the helmet manufacturer. Helmet decorations should not be used to obscure dents, cracks, non-manufactured holes, other penetrations, burns or other damages. Caution should be taken when marking or decorating Class G or E helmets. Identification markers used on shells for helmets meeting Class G or E requirements shall be affixed without making holes through the shell and without the use of any metal parts. Metallic based markers such as some reflective tapes, metal foil labels or metal foil hot stamps should be applied only with the helmet manufacturer's authorization. A8. Safe Conditions The impact, penetration and electrical insulation test levels specified in this standard should not be construed as indicating safe levels to which the helmet can be subjected during use. The maximum voltage against which helmets will protect the wearer depends on a number of variable factors, such as the characteristics of the electrical circuit and the equipment involved, the care exercised in maintenance of equipment, and weather conditions. Therefore, the safe and proper use of helmets is beyond the scope of this standard.

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Appendix B (informative) Electrical Insulation Testing B1. Equipment Guidelines Commercially available high-voltage test equipment can provide self-contained voltage and currentsensing circuits with adjustable current limiting from 3 to 30 milliamperes. With these units, all that is required is a test stand for the helmet and appropriate safety interlocks. The transformer should have a rating of at least 400 volt-amperes and have one side of the high-voltage supply grounded. If a multi-station test stand is to be used to test more than one helmet at a time, an additional current meter should be added for each helmet being tested. The volt-ampere rating of the transformer should be increased about 350 volt-amperes for each additional station. A multi-station test stand can also be built so that the external tank is charged and the inside of each helmet can be alternately grounded through a suitable current meter. With this arrangement, only one meter is required. It does not have to be protected from high voltage, and no increase in the transformer rating is necessary. B2. Precautions High-voltage test equipment is inherently dangerous because of the relatively high volt-ampere rating of the transformer and its stored energy capacity that can produce a current in excess of the current limit that has been set for a fraction of a second. People familiar with the relatively harmless automotive ignition and other small (although high-voltage) coils may have developed a false sense of security. The following checklist is submitted to supplement those of the equipment manufacturers and the testers, and should not be considered a complete list of safety precautions. (1) Prepare and review the test procedure during an operator's training. Post the procedure on the test stand. Only well-trained and competent personnel should operate this equipment. (2) Post "High Voltage" signs in the area and equip the system with vivid pilot lights to indicate that it is operating. (3) Ground the system. (4) Contain the helmet under test in an insulated chamber of acylic or a similar material, with safety interlocks on the door. The interlocks should be fail-safe and operated with low voltage, such as 24 volts. All joints and openings in the chamber should have grounded screen or wires over or adjacent to them on the inside of the chamber. Maintenance of this ground and the ground mentioned in item (3) should be part of the safety interlock system. (5) Provide dual hand contacts to occupy both hands of the operator. (6) Do not allow other people in the area during testing. (7) Do not allow moisture or water to accumulate during or after testing. Ozone is generated during the testing and may be dangerous. A small cage-type fan can be used to extract ozone from the test chamber, with an airflow from vents at the end of the chamber furthest from the point of extraction. The ozone should be vented to the outside.

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ANSI/ISEA Z89.1-2014

Appendix C (informative) Force Transmission Testing C1. Equipment Guidelines The impact tester should have a guidance system at least three meters in height and capable of producing impact velocities required by this standard. Test anvils, headforms, transducers, etc., mounted to the base should be attached so that no energy is absorbed through deflections and the base should be at least 25 mm (1.0 in.) thick steel. Friction between the falling carriage and the guidance system should be minimized by the use of suitable bearing materials. The impactor guide mechanism should contain an automatic brake to prevent second impacts (bouncing). A velocity detector is required to assure proper drop heights. The position of said detector should be adjustable so that the speed of impact is measured no more than 2.0 cm (0.79 in.) from the point of impact. A detector flag attached to the guide mechanism which passes through or by the detector should not be greater than 26 mm (1.02 in.) height. The detector should be capable of resolving velocities of 0.01 millisecond increments. The photo beam, visible, infrared, etc., should have emitter/receiver slots no greater than 0.05 mm (0.002 in.) running normal to the path of travel of the flag. Magnetic detector systems may also be used if equivalency is established. An electronic timer is used to determine the speed at which the flag traverses the detector. The load cell should conform to the following characteristics: Size Measuring Range Resolution Accuracy, Linearity Rigidity Transverse Sensitivity

75 mm diameter. (3.0 in.) Min. 0-5000 N (1124 lb) Min. 45 N (10.1 lb) Max.  2.5% Full-scale Max. 4.5 x 109 N/m (2.6 x 10 7 lb/in.) Min. 3.0% Max.

The resonant frequency of the load cell/headform assembly should not be less than 5 kHz, and the frequency response of the system should be in compliance with SEA Recommended Practice J211, Channel Class 1000. It is recommended that the load cell output be recorded with a storage oscilloscope, transient recorder or similar device designed to store maximum readings. However, maximum force readings may be obtained using a peak indicating meter designed to store only a maximum reading. The frequency response of peak indicating meters should at least meet the requirements of SEA Recommended Practice J211, Channel Class 1000. Resolution should be 45 N (10.1 lb) Max. with rise time capability less than 0.01 milliseconds. C2. Calibration Strain gauge type load cells can generally be calibrated staticly by applying a known dead weight to the top of the load cell and checking the output signal. This works well with an oscilloscope or voltmeter. However, transient vibrations tend to create a problem when using peak indicating meters, and thus the load shall be applied and/or removed with extreme care. Furthermore, static calibration does not take into account the dynamic response of the measuring system. Dynamic calibration is recommended but requires a calibrated reference accelerometer and a calibrating medium (shock pad). The reference accelerometer should have the following characteristics: Measuring Range Resolution Accuracy, Linearity Transverse Sensitivity Resonant Frequency Frequency Response Repeatability/Stability

Page A4

0-400 G's Min. 1.0 G Max. 1.0% Full-scale Max. 3.0% Max. 20 kHz Min.  0.5 dB @ 0.1 Hz - 2 kHz 1.0% Full-scale Max.

ANSI/ISEA Z89.1-2014

The calibrating medium should have the following characteristics: Material Durometer Thickness Size

Elastomer (High Resilience and Low Hysteresis) 50-60 Shore A 25 mm (1.0 in.) Minimum 100 mm (4.0 in.) Diameter Minimum

The accelerometer is mounted on top of the 3.6 kg (8.0 lb) impactor along its vertical axis ( 2.5o of true vertical) according to the manufacturer's instructions. A dual channel storage oscilloscope is recommended for making simultaneous recordings of both accelerometer and load cell outputs. Both accelerometer and oscilloscope should be in recent calibration. Force Measuring System Calibration Procedure Remove headform from load cell and mount the calibrating medium to the top of the load cell. All electronic systems should be turned on and allowed to stabilize. The impactor, with accelerometer attached, should be dropped onto the calibrating medium from a height which yields a maximum acceleration reading of 100  10 Gs. Outputs of both accelerometer and load cell should be recorded. The two maximum values should read within 2.5% of each other according to F=ma (Force = Mass x Acceleration). This degree of accuracy shall be repeatable through at least five impacts. Velocity Measuring System Calibration Procedure If a simulated detector flag (ball) cannot be dropped in "free fall" from a known height through or by the detector, the velocity measuring system should be returned to the manufacturer at least every six months for re-calibration. Otherwise, a ball of known diameter can be dropped from a known height to trigger the velocity detector. The ball shall be large enough to properly trigger the detector and have enough mass to negate the effects of aerodynamic friction. The ball should be dropped from at least one meter. The actual velocity is then calculated from: ____ V =2gh Where g = Gravitational Constant and h = Drop Height. This value is then compared to the measured velocity. Both values should agree within 1.0%. C3. System Repeatability Procedure With the calibrating medium (shock pad) described in Appendix C2 mounted to the top of the load cell, three consecutive drops of the impactor onto the medium should be made. The velocity of impact should be maintained at 4.0 m/s.  0.03 m/s (13.1 ft/s  0.1 ft/s). The repeatability value should be the average of the three maximum transmitted force readings. The total range for the three values should not exceed  5.0% of the average value.

Page A5

ANSI/ISEA Z89.1-2014

Appendix D (informative) Impact Energy Attenuation Testing D1. Equipment Guidelines The impact tester should have a guidance system at least 2.0 m (6.6 ft) in height to produce impact velocities required for this standard. The test anvils (flat and hemispherical) should be made to be interchangeable on the base and be attached so that no energy is absorbed through deflections and the base should be at least 25 mm (1.0 in.) thick steel. Friction between the falling carriage and the guidance system should be minimized by the use of suitable bearing materials. A velocity detector is required to assure proper drop heights. The position of said detector should be adjustable so that the speed of impact is measured no more than 2.0 cm (0.79 in.) from the point of impact. A detector flag attached to the guide mechanism that passes through or by the detector should not be greater than 26 mm (1.02 in.) in height. The detector should be capable of having a resolution no greater than 0.01 milliseconds. The photo beam, visible, infrared, etc., should have emitter/receiver slots no greater than 0.05 mm (0.002 in.) running normal to the path of travel of the flag. Magnetic detector systems may also be used if equivalency is established. An electronic timer is used to determine the speed at which the flag traverses the detector. Attached to the guide mechanism, in such a way as to prevent rotation, should be a mounting ball. Test headforms are mounted on said ball with a clamping ring such that the headforms may be swiveled about the ball. An accelerometer should be mounted inside the ball, having its axis (or the vertical axes, in the case of a triaxial accelerometer) within 2.5 degrees of vertical alignment. The accelerometer should conform to the following characteristics: Shape Size Measuring Range Resolution Accuracy, Linearity Transverse Sensitivity Resonant Frequency Frequency Response Repeatability/Stability

Cubic, with Flat Sides 25 mm (1.0 in.) Max. Dimensions 0-500 G's Min. 1.0 G Max. 1.0% Full-scale Max. 5.0% Max. 20 kHz Min.  5 dB @ 0.1 Hz - 2 kHz 1.0% Full-scale Max.

The frequency response of the system should be in compliance with SEA Recommended Practice J2111, Channel Class 1000. Each channel resolution should be 1.0 G Max. with rise time capability less than 0.01 milliseconds.

Page A6

ANSI/ISEA Z89.1-2014 D2. Calibration While there are several acceptable methods of accelerometer calibration, one method may be performed using the fixture specified in Appendix C2 for dynamic calibration. In this case, however, the calibrated reference accelerometer and the test accelerometer should be fixed in "piggyback" fashion, one on top of the other. The cubic shaped test accelerometer lends itself well to this procedure. The axis should be in vertical alignment with the axis of the reference accelerometer and the vertical axis of the impactor. Practice has demonstrated that thin, "double stick" tape can be used to fixture the accelerometers, one on top of the other. This assumes that the flat surface of the accelerometers in contact with the tape is at least 50 square mm (2.0 square in.) and that the cables are properly tied down and held in place. Acceleration Measuring Procedure Remove the test accelerometer from the mounting ball. Mount this unit on the impactor then mount the calibrated reference accelerometer on top of the test accelerometer. Mount the calibrating medium as in Appendix C2. All electronic systems should be turned on and allowed to stabilize. The impactor, with accelerometers attached, should be dropped onto the calibrating medium from a height which yields a maximum acceleration, as indicated by the reference accelerometer of 200  20 Gs. The vertical axis outputs of both accelerometers should be recorded. The two maximum values should read within 2.0% of each other. This degree of accuracy should be repeatable through at least five impacts. Velocity Measuring System Calibration Procedure For checking the calibration of velocity detectors, see Appendix C2. D3. System Repeatability Procedure Mount the calibrating medium (shock pad) described in Appendix C2 onto the test base in place of the test anvil(s). Position the headform inverted, with the basic plane horizontal. With the accelerometer connected to the recording/computing instrumentation, three consecutive drops of the headform onto the medium should be made. The velocity of the impact should be maintained at 3.0 m/s  0.03 m/s (9.8 ft/s  0.1 ft/s). For each drop a Maximum G value should be recorded. The repeatability value should be the average of the three measurements. However, the total range for all three values should not exceed  5.0% of the average value.

Page A7

FAQs

What is the ANSI standard Z89 1? ›

This sixth revision of the American National Standard for Industrial Head Protection, ANSI/ISEA Z89. 1-2009 represents an effort to accommodate characteristics of industrial head protection that end-users identified as being important as work environments change and emerging hazards are identified.

What's the ANSI standard for hard hats? ›

An OSHA-approved hard hat is a hard hat that meets ANSI Z89. 1. 29 CFR 1910.135(b)(1) and 29 CFR 1926.100(b)(1) state that head protection must meet the 1997, 2003, or 2009 editions of ANSI Z89. 1, or be shown to offer equivalent or better protection.

What is the difference between a Type 1 and Type 2 hard hat? ›

Type I hard hats are only designed to protect workers from objects and blows that come from above and strike the top of a helmet. Type II hard hats are designed to offer protection from lateral blows and objects. This includes from the front, back, and side as well as from the top.

What is a Type 1 hard hat? ›

Type I Hard Hats are intended to reduce the force of impact resulting from a blow only to the top of the head. This form of impact, for example, may result from a hammer or nail gun falling from above.

What are the 3 classes of hard hats? ›

The three classes are based on the level of protection they provide from electrical hazards. Class G (General) hard hats are rated for 2,200 volts. Class E (Electrical) hard hats are rated for 20,000 volts. Class C (Conductive) hard hats do not offer electrical protection.

How many years is a hard hat good for? ›

That said, most manufacturers have recommendations on helmet and suspension lifespans. MSA hard hat shells should be used no longer than 5 years, while suspensions should be replaced after 12 months. Both are the maximum time frame for replacement, calculated from date of first use.

Why do hard hats expire? ›

All hard hats are made with high quality, durable materials to protect laborers, but they will not last forever. Hard hats are subject to working environment, sunlight exposure, extreme temperatures, and general wear and tear that can degrade the protective properties of the device over time.

Do carbon fiber hard hats expire? ›

When Do Carbon Fiber Hard Hats Expire? Just like standard hard hats, carbon fiber hard hats expire five years from the date they were manufactured. This information can be found stamped inside the hard hat.

How often should a hard hat be replaced? ›

Many employers replace all employees' caps every five years, regardless of outward appearance. If the user environment is known to include higher exposure to temperature extremes, sunlight or chemicals, hard hats should be replaced routinely after two years of use.

Which hard hats are not ANSI approved? ›

Bump caps are not ANSI approved; therefore, they are not OSHA approved. Bump caps do not protect against falling objects. They are never appropriate for workplaces that require hard hat protection.

Do hard hats expire OSHA? ›

Are there OSHA hard hat expiration Requirements? While OSHA does require that all hard hats comply with the ANSI/ISEA Z89. 1 standard for Industrial Head Protection, they do not explicitly state anything about hard hat expiration.

Why do electricians wear full brim hard hats? ›

Class E (Electrical) Hard Hats are designed to reduce exposure to high voltage conductors, and offer dielectric protection up to 20,000 volts (phase to ground). This amount of voltage protection, however, is designated to the head only, and is not an indication of voltage protection allocated to the user as a whole.

What do the color of hard hats mean? ›

White for supervisors, foremen and engineers. Brown for welders and those working with high heat. Green for safety inspectors and occasionally new workers. Yellow for earth movers and general workers.

What is a Class C type 1 hard hat? ›

Vented Full Brim Hard Hats (Type 1, Class C)

Vented full-brim (Type 1, Class C) hard hats are vented to help dissipate heat and have a brim around the entire hat to shed rain, reduce glare, and protect the face and neck from sun. Type 1 hard hats protect wearers from vertical impacts.

What does a class C hard hat protect you from? ›

A class C helmet is acceptable on construction projects for protection against impact and penetration of falling and flying objects but not for electrical hazards.

What is the highest level of PPE? ›

Level A PPE offers the highest level of protection against respiratory hazards, skin exposures and contaminants that can interfere with the eyes. Equipment users will wear a full-body suit and run an air respirator for airflow.

Can you put stickers on your hard hat OSHA? ›

OSHA will allow the placement of stickers on hard hats when the manufacturer authorizes the alteration. The employer will also need to prove that the PPE cannot be affected by the adhesive on the stickers. Once these actions are complete, a variety of labels can be placed on workers' hard hats.

Can electricians wear Class C hard hats? ›

Electricians can choose from among three electrical class hard hat options — classes E, G, and C — depending on the degree of shock and electrical exposure protection required for specific assignments.

Does OSHA require chin straps on hard hats? ›

(b) In addition, proper fitting of hard hats is important to ensure that the hard hat will not fall off during work operations. In some cases a chin strap may be necessary to keep the hard hat on an employee's head. (Chin straps should break at a reasonably low force to prevent a strangulation hazard).

What is a Type 2 Class E hard hat? ›

Side- and top-protecting full-brim hard hats (Type 2, Class E) are used where swinging objects such as hooks and chains pose a hazard. They have a full brim around the entire hat to reduce glare and help shade the eyes, face, and neck in bright sunlight.

What do you do with expired hard hats? ›

Most hard hats are made of #2 plastic (high density polyethylene), so they are fairly easy to recycle if you can get them to a company that accepts that type of plastic.

How do I tell if my hard hat is expired? ›

So although you won't find an expiry date on your hard hat, you will find a manufactured date. And it's this date you will use to check the expiry date. The manufactured date is stamped onto the hard hat, usually below the brim.

When should you discard the entire hard hat? ›

As a general guideline, many large corporations replace all employees' caps every five years, regardless of the cap's outward appearance. Where user environments are known to include higher exposure to temperature extremes, sunlight or chemicals, hard hats/caps should be replaced automatically after two years of use.

How do I know if my safety helmet is expired? ›

Have a look at the date stamp on your hardhat you might be surprised! As a general guide, industrial safety helmets should be replaced three years after manufacture, but always check with the manufacturer. Here we have some example images of different date stamps.

What does the date stamp on a hard hat mean? ›

The date code indicates when the hat was molded. Date codes are molded into the hat shell and they specify the following: • Day; • Month; and • Year the hat or cap was molded. The large arrow inside the “Month/Year” circle points to the month, and the two digits inside that inner circle indicate the year.

How do you know if a safety helmet is valid? ›

Each helmet, when manufactured, has a year and month manufacture date stamped on the inside of the hardhat shell and some of them have a full date too.

Are carbon fiber hard hats better than plastic? ›

The carbon fiber-reinforced shell is made from high-quality materials that are both strong and lightweight. Structurally solid and resistant to fatigue, they are more durable than their plastic counterparts. The DAX carbon fiber hard hats are available in both full brim and cap styles.

How old can a hard hat be? ›

As a general guideline, most hard hat manufacturers recommend replacing hard hats every five years regardless of outside appearance. If you work under extreme conditions, such as exposure to high temperatures, chemicals, or sunlight, hard hats should be replaced after two years of use.

Can you wear a hoodie under a hard hat? ›

A hooded sweatshirt, winter liners and cooling headwear should not affect the performance of a hard hat if these products are worn properly and are fitted smoothly on the head. Winter liners are designed to attach to the hard hat suspension and seat down onto the head.

Do stickers weaken hard hats? ›

In most cases, the effect of stickers on hard hats does not negatively affect the safety performance provided by the hard hat. There is very little potential for chemical interaction between the type of adhesive used in typical pressure-sensitive stickers and the helmet shell.

Why should you avoid applying decals to your hard hat? ›

Hard hats require regular inspections to check for cracks, dents, damage, wear and the like. Stickers can mask the damage or weakness in the shell, causing the person inspecting it to deem the hard hat in good working order when it's not.

How many pounds can a hard hat withstand? ›

According to workingperson.me, all hard hats must achieve ANSI impact standards for worksite use. To achieve this standard, a hard hat must be able to “withstand an 8 pound ball dropped from a height of 5 feet onto the top of the hard hat. Maximum peak force here would be 1000 pounds.”

What is the difference between a hard hat and a bump cap? ›

Hard Hats vs Bump Caps

Bump caps protect against small impacts that a worker may incur when bumping into or knocking against a stationary object, while hard hats offer additional protection against falling or moving objects.

What is a Type 2 Class C hard hat? ›

The Bolt is a Type 2, Class C vented safety helmet. This means it reduces the impact force from the top like a type I but in addition type 2 also reduces the impact forces from off-center, front-rear, and the side. Class C means it is conductive, so it provides no protection from electrical shock.

What is the maximum impact that all ANSI tested hard hats should withstand? ›

Class G hard hats must be able to withstand 2,200 volts for one minute, with leakage not exceeding 3 milliamperes. Class E hard hats must be able to withstand 20,000 volts for three minutes, with leakage not exceeding 9 milliamperes. At 30,000 volts, there should be no evidence of burn-through.

Is it an OSHA violation to wear your hard hat backwards? ›

Is it permissible to use such a hard hat with the bill facing to the rear? Response: Yes. Hard hats are required where "there is a possible danger of head injury from impact, or from falling or flying objects, or from electrical shock and burns" under 29 CFR 1926.100(a).

Can I wear a bandana under my hard hat? ›

Winter liners can be worn but should be inspected to ensure they do not adversely affect the proper fit or function of the hard hat. Bandannas, skull-caps, hoods, or welder's caps that do not contain metal parts should be used only if they are worn smoothly on the top of the head.

Should you wear a hard hat on a ladder? ›

Many workers avoid wearing any protective equipment when climbing a ladder. However, gear like hard hats, gloves, and boots can go a long way toward avoiding disaster. Not only can these pieces prevent slipping, but they can protect the worker on impact if they fall.

What is ANSI Z41? ›

The ANSI Z41 standard defines performance measurements and test methods for protective footwear.

Is 2925 a standard? ›

LABELLING AND MARKING – As per the requirements of IS 2925: 1984. 4. CONTROL UNIT – All helmets of the same size/size range manufactured from same material in one day shall constitute a control unit. 5.

What type of hard hats are not ANSI approved? ›

Bump caps are not ANSI approved; therefore, they are not OSHA approved. Bump caps do not protect against falling objects. They are never appropriate for workplaces that require hard hat protection.

What is EN12492? ›

EN12492: Helmets for mountaineers must provide protection against hazards that may occur during activities undertaken by mountaineers. Requirements include: Shock absorption, vertical, frontal, lateral, dorsal. Penetration resistance.

Is ANSI Z41 still valid? ›

Because ANSI Z41. 1 no longer exists and new safety footwear is being tested and designed to comply with the new ASTM standards, OSHNC will consider safety footwear which is labeled as meeting the requirements of the new ASTM standards as equivalent to the ANSI Z41.

How do you tell if shoes are ANSI approved? ›

Shoes adhering to ANSI standards meet design and performance requirements for foot protection.
  1. Check with the manufacturer to determine whether the shoe offers compression and impact protection. ...
  2. Ask the manufacturer the impact measurement of your safety shoes. ...
  3. Check the compression measurement of your safety shoes.
26 Sept 2017

What are OSHA requirements for employers? ›

Many OSHA standards require employers to provide personal protective equipment, when it is necessary to protect employees from job-related injuries, illnesses, and fatalities. With few exceptions, OSHA requires employers to pay for personal protective equipment when it is used to comply with OSHA standards.

Is 2925 a safety helmet? ›

This standard has been prepared for industrial safety helmets capable of providing adequate protection from falling objects and other hazards commonly met with in many industries.

Are code shoes safe? ›

BIS CERTIFICATION FOR PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT SAFETY FOOTWEAR IS 15298 (PART 2):2016
Code designationClassification
IFootwear made from leather and other materials, excluding all-rubber or all-polymeric footwear.
IIAll-rubber (i.e. entirely vulcanized) or all-polymeric (i.e. entirely moulded) footwear.

How much weight can a safety helmet withstand? ›

The mass of helmet without attachments should be 400 g. If it is to exceed 400 g, with nearing 35 g, it should be labelled.

How often should a hard hat be replaced? ›

Many employers replace all employees' caps every five years, regardless of outward appearance. If the user environment is known to include higher exposure to temperature extremes, sunlight or chemicals, hard hats should be replaced routinely after two years of use.

What is the highest class of hard hat? ›

Class G General Hard Hat (Also known as Class G Hard Hat)

The Class G hard hat is proof-tested to offer dielectric protection from electrical shock of up to 2,200 volts.

What does a class C hard hat protect you from? ›

A class C helmet is acceptable on construction projects for protection against impact and penetration of falling and flying objects but not for electrical hazards.

What is the difference between en397 & en12492? ›

EN 397 is a standard for industrial helmets and matches the risk related to construction sites or other places where a safety helmet is crucial. EN 12492 is a standard that describes the safety requirements and test methods for climbing helmets intended for mountain climbers.

What is difference between en397 and en12492? ›

EN 397 specifies the requirements for industrial safety helmets, which primarily provide protection against falling objects, whereas EN 12492 covers helmets for use in mountaineering which includes a risk of swinging and repeated all-round impact.

How many types of safety helmets are there? ›

Safety helmets are usually of three types- Class A, Class B , and Class C. Class A helmets offer users with impact and penetration resistance apart from limited voltage protection (up to 2200 volts).

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