Experimental and numerical investigation of jet performance based on Johnson-Cook model of liner material (2023)

Table of Contents
International Journal of Impact Engineering Abstract Introduction Section snippets Structure of the shaped charge and X-ray test setup Numerical Computation Model Analysis and discussions Conclusions CRediT authorship contribution statement Declaration of Competing Interest Acknowledgment References (66) Mater Lett J Alloys Compd Acta Mater Acta Mater Results Phys Int J Impact Eng Int J Impact Eng J Alloys Compd Int J Impact Eng Mater Sci Eng R Int J Refract Met Hard Mater Procedia Eng Int J Impact Eng Int J Impact Eng Int J Impact Eng Int J Impact Eng Int J Impact Eng Int J Impact Eng Acta Astronaut Int J Impact Eng Int J Impact Eng Int J Impact Eng Int J Impact Eng Int J Impact Eng Comparison of shaped-charge perforating induced formation damage to gas- and liquid-saturated sandstone samples J Pet Sci Eng Numerical simulation on jet formation of shaped charge with different liner materials Def Sci J Formation of jets by shaped charges with metal powder liners Propell Explos Pyrot The properties of the sintered copper powder liner J Wuhan Univ Technol Mater Sci Ed Experimental and numerical investigation of zirconium jet performance with different liner shapes design Def Technol Research on feasibility of several high density materials for EFP liner and material selection criteria Propell Explos Pyrot Influence of Yield Strength of Ti-Alloy Liner on Crater Diameter Formed by Shaped Charge Jet Penetration Solid State Phenom Demolition mechanism and behavior of shaped charge with reactive liner Propell Explos Pyrot Penetration and internal blast behavior of reactive liner enhanced shaped charge against concrete space Def Technol Cited by (0) Recommended articles (6) Videos
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International Journal of Impact Engineering

Volume 170,

December 2022

, 104343

Abstract

A comparative study of the shaped jets of six liner materials, namely, copper, Cu–Zn alloy, Steel1006, high nitrogen steel, and two titanium alloys, was conducted to investigate the influence of the macroscopic mechanical properties of the materials on the jet's performance. The X-ray experiment of the jet was performed, and the numerical calculation of the jet formation was carried out by means of simulation based on the Johnson–Cook model. Copper, Cu–Zn alloy, and Steel1006 formed cohesive jets, whereas the jets of the three other materials had different degrees of radial dispersion. The penetration depth of the jet has a significant negative correlation with its radial dispersion degree. In the numerical calculation, the head shape of the jet under the Euler algorithm can be used to judge its cohesion. Arrowheads or rounded oval heads symbolize cohesive jets, whereas blunt or even mouth-forward “bowl-shaped” heads indicate jets with radial dispersion. The degree of dispersion is positively correlated with the degree of dullness of the jet head. Simulation results show that the influence of material melting temperature and thermal softening effect on jet velocity, length, and diameter is particularly evident, whereas the influence ability of yield strength and strain rate effect is always at a very low level. Materials with small shear modulus, high yield strength, and significant strain effects are more prone to forming non-cohesive jets, which was verified by the jet forming experiments of amorphous alloy with these material characteristics.

Introduction

Shaped charges have been widely used in many fields, such as armor breaking and oil exploration [1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6]. The shaped jet performance is the main reference for judging the power of shaped charge. Theoretical and experimental results have shown that not only the structure and size of the shaped charge but also the shape and material of the liner have significant effects on the jet performance [7], [8], [9], [10]. Therefore, the jet characteristics of different liner materials must be studied.

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In the past few decades, research on the jet properties of many liner materials has been carried out [11], [12], [13], [14]. Copper is one of the most widely used liner material. The penetration depth of copper jet can reach approximately 7 times the caliber of the charge because of its suitable material properties when targeting a concrete target with a compressive strength of 400 MPa [15]. Through experiments, Duan etal. found that sintering could improve the density of the copper liner effectively, thereby resulting in a higher penetration ability [16]. In addition, the potential use of other metal materials as a liner has been verified. Tamer etal. [17] experimentally studied the jet performance of the zirconium liner of four structures that formed cohesive jets. Compared with the conical liner, the penetration depth of the bell and bi-conical liner jets deepened to varying degrees, whereas the crater diameter of the shaped charge with hemispherical liner increased, representing the formation of an explosively formed projectile (EFP). Ni, Mo, U, and W alloy liners have also been studied experimentally, and only Ni alloy liner formed an EFP, while the others were fractured [18].

With the development of materials technology, alloys and reactive materials have entered the field of vision of researchers. Salih etal. [19] found that the influence of the type of aluminum alloy on the penetration increased under the high distance through experimental research. Zhao etal. [20] performed a shaped charge explosion test for W–Cu–Zn, W–Cu–Ni, and W–Cu alloy liners. They pointed out that the addition of Zn and Ni aggravated the lateral dispersion of the jet energy, which reduced the penetration ability of the jet. The research on the Ti alloy liner also shown that yield strength has a negative effect on the cavity size of the penetrating concrete [21]. In addition, reactive materials are used as liners to increase damage power and target after-effects because of their significant energy release effect [22,23]. Wang etal. [24] pointed out that compared with copper, the penetration depth of PTFE-Al jet was smaller, and the aperture was larger when penetrating the steel target. Other impact tests and microscopic studies found that NiAl powder materials will undergo chemical reactions during the deformation process [25].

In addition to traditional metals and alloys, the damage characteristics of non-metallic materials have also been studied [26]. The polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) jet imploded to improve the damage efficiency when penetrating the concrete [27,28]. In addition, bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), which are often used as projectile material, have attracted extensive attention because of their unique microstructure and mechanical properties [29], [30], [31], [32]. The Army Research Laboratory also pointed out that the BMG jet would scatter radially, which weakened its penetration ability [33]. Through theoretical analysis, numerical calculation, and experimental verification, researchers proved that W/Zr amorphous alloy can reduce the penetration impedance caused by the thermal effect generated by the reaction, thereby improving the penetration depth by approximately 66.35% compared with copper, which has good application potential [34,35].

In this paper, the jet performance was investigated experimentally and numerically using the conical truncated cap liner of six materials. First, we introduced the X-ray experiment and the structure of the shaped charge liners. Material parameters of the explosive and liner were given in detail in the numerical simulation section. Second, we analyzed and discussed the influence of material properties on jet performance. The forming experiment of Zr-based amorphous alloy jets was also performed to verify the conclusions on jet cohesiveness. Finally, a summary of all the findings were presented.

Section snippets

Structure of the shaped charge and X-ray test setup

The shaped charge is prepared by die-casting method, which is mainly composed of 8701 explosive and truncated cap liners and no shell. The shaped charge structure is shown in Fig.1. The liner material is the only variable in the experiment. The liner material involved in this paper includes copper, Cu–Zn alloy (CMZ), Steel1006, High-nitrogen Steel (HNS), and two types of Ti Alloy (TC21; TB6) (Fig.2). The HNS used in this article is AL6XN alloy, which is a nitrogen-enhanced austenitic

Numerical Computation Model

The simulation method is an efficient means to study the crushing and jet performance of the liner. In this paper, the Autodyn software [37] is used to study the jet performance. A 2D symmetry model was constructed to improve the calculation speed. This model includes air, explosive, and liner, all of which use the Euler method. The air boundary sets the flow-out. The detonation point is set at the center of the end face of the charge (Fig.6).

The computational area is almost 520 mm×90 mm,

Analysis and discussions

In this section, we will compare the X-ray experimental and numerical simulation results of the shaped jets for six materials in detail. The applicability of the J-C model for the six liner materials and the influence of the material macro properties on the jet performance are analyzed and discussed.

Conclusions

X-ray experiments of shaped charge jet forming were performed for six liner materials. The simulation is conducted on the basis of J-C model, and the material macro properties that affect the jet performance are compared and analyzed. The Zr-based amorphous alloy jet forming test was also carried out as a verification experiment. The final conclusions mainly include the following points:

1

For the shaped charge with 8701 explosives, Copper, CMZ, and Steel1006 can form cohesive jets, whereas the

CRediT authorship contribution statement

Jin Shi: Conceptualization, Methodology, Software, Investigation, Formal analysis, Validation, Data curation, Writing – original draft. Zheng-xiang Huang: Conceptualization, Resources, Supervision, Writing – review & editing. Xu-dong Zu: Investigation, Supervision, Visualization, Writing – review & editing. Qiang-qiang Xiao: Investigation, Supervision, Visualization, Writing – review & editing.

Declaration of Competing Interest

The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.

Acknowledgment

This work was supported by State Administration for Science, Technology and Industry for National Defense (Grant No. 2020-JCJQ-JJ-405).

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