Water Meters in the UK: Your Essential Guide (2023)

What does a water meter look like? How does a water meter work? How does one impact your bills? Find out all you need to know about water meters (including smart meters) in the UK so that you can decide if having one installed is worth it.

How Do Water Meters Work In The UK?

In the UK, water suppliers use two common billing methods: metered and unmetered. Generally speaking, only homes with a metered water rate have or require a water meter installation although there are some exceptions.

Therefore, unlike your electricity and gas, not every household is equipped with a water meter.

How Can I Tell If I Have A Water Meter?

One quick and easy way to determine if you have a water meter for your home is by looking at your water bill.

Some suppliers, such as South Staff Waters, often use a coding system at the beginning of your account number distinguishing between the two billing methods:

How a water meter works is a lot like an electric or gas meter. As water passes through the meter, the reading changes to reflect the amount of water you have used. The water is measured in cubic meters (m3).

  • MC at the start of your customer number, then you likely have a water meter (Metered Customer)
  • UC at the start of your customer number, then you likely do not have a water meter (Unmetered Customer)

Haven’t received a water bill yet? As a general guideline, properties built after 1990 are likely to have a water meter installed.

Before we can have a look at how to read a water meter, what does a water meter look like?

What Does A Water Meter Look Like?

This will first depend on the type of water meter you have for your home. Smart water meters were introduced in the UK in January of 2016, so most homes will still have a traditional water meter. Nonetheless, let's look at some characteristics of both types of water meters found in the UK so you can easily identify yours.

Standard Water Meter Characteristics

Most water meters in the UK are round, about the size of a tin can, and connected to the water piping. Inside the round surface, you will find either five or four black digits and two red digits, often accompanied by a small dial as well. The serial number consists of a total of nine digits and is often found on the outer rim of your water meter.

Water Meters in the UK: Your Essential Guide (1)

Smart Water Meter Characteristics

Like standard water meters, most smart water meters are also round, slightly larger than a tin can, and are connected to the water piping. There is a digital screen that shows multiple numbers and as many as three decimal points after a coma. The serial number of a smart water meter is located above the bar code, which is found in the inner portion of the meter.

Water Meters in the UK: Your Essential Guide (2)

Where Is My Water Meter?

Now that we’ve seen what water meters look like, we can now see where they are located in your property.

Your water meter can either be installed outdoors or indoors. When the supply pipe is shared with other properties (like in flats or terraced buildings), your water meter will usually be indoors.

When a supply pipe is not shared (like detached or semi-detached homes), the preference is for the water meter to be outdoors.

We look at the common places water meters can be found in each situation below.

(Video) Understanding your water meter

Outdoor Water Meter Installation

The preferred location for an outdoor water meter is often close to the stop valve. These are frequently found on your property, close to the footpath. Look for a small metal or plastic cover in the ground. You may need a tool like a screwdriver to lift the cover. Once opened, you should see another plastic-type top, this is there to protect your meter from frost. Lift this and you will see your water meter and be able to tell which type it is from what your water meter looks like.

Water Meters in the UK: Your Essential Guide (3)

Indoor Water Meter Installation

If you don’t see a metal or plastic cover outdoors, chances are your water meter has been installed indoors. In these cases, most water suppliers will attempt to install the water meter where the water supply first enters your home. This is often in either your garage or under your kitchen sink. Again look for the stop valve inside your home, your water meter is likely next to it.

In most large buildings, your water meter will be in a utility room much like the one depicted below. To determine which water meter belongs to your home, you will have to verify the serial number.

Water Meters in the UK: Your Essential Guide (4)

Did you know?Stop valves are what control the main water supply to your home. They are there to be turned off in case of emergency.

Can I Move My Water Meter?

If you don’t like where your water meter has been installed, you may request to move it. However, you will likely have to pay to have it moved.

Most water suppliers will install a water meter at no extra cost The caveat, though, is that they will choose its location for you.

Know the law around meters!It is illegal to try and move or instruct someone else to move a water meter or a smart water meter. Only the contractors partied to your water company can legally move or remove a water meter. Any intentional change or damage to the water meter carries a heavy fine.

How To Read A Water Meter

Now that you’ve found your water meter and know what your water meter looks like to determine whether it is standard or smart, let’s have a look at how to read your water meter.

Since there are two types of water meters, we look at how to read a water meter for each type.

How To Read A Standard Water Meter

If your water meter looks like a standard water meter, it should display either five or four black digits followed by two red ones. Simply read the black numbers from left to right and ignore any red numbers at the end. Red numbers are decimal points to your usage.

How To Read A Smart Water Meter

If your water meter looks like a smart water meter, the entire reason to have one installed is for the supplier to be able to obtain the water meter readings automatically. Therefore, you shouldn't have to read a smart water meter.

Even so, you may want to look at your smart water meter reading to ensure you are being billed accurately. Technology is great, but it’s never 100% fail proof.

Much like a standard water meter, simply read the digital numbers from left to right until the comma. There will be two or three digits appearing after the comma. You can ignore any digits after the comma. These are decimal consumption of your water usage.

FactSince suppliers only charge you for every 1 cubic meter of water used, the decimals are not counted in a water meter reading. This is for both standard and smart water meters.

How To Submit A Water Meter Reading

Once you have your water meter reading, you can submit them to your water supplier via your online account, by phone, or even by post.

You shouldn’t have to submit a meter reading if you have a smart water meter. The supplier is supposed to receive the information directly and automatically from the meter.

(Video) Welsh Water Guide Water Meters Explained

Regardless of your type of water meter, we recommend you verify your meter reading with the water bill you receive. This ensures that you are not inadvertently being overcharged for your water usage.

Why Should You Provide A Water Meter Reading?

Much like submitting an electricity meter reading, there are many advantages to regularly providing a water meter reading:

  • Ensures you are being charged the right amount for your water usage
  • Avoids consuming more water than you can afford, stay within your budget
  • Helps detect potential water leaks sooner. Protecting your home against water damage and water loss.
  • Shows your water consumption habits and can help you curb certain behaviors to save on your water usage.
  • Avoids disputes with your water supplier

Smart water meter or not, always verify the meter reading indicated on your bills before you pay them. In a court of law, paying for a bill is often interpreted as an acceptance of the bill's accuracy. Trying to dispute a water bill after you have paid makes it that much more difficult in the UK. But, in 98% of cases, you should not have to worry about ever getting to this point.

When Should You Provide A Water Meter Reading?

Unless you have a smart water meter installed, most water suppliers will only take a water meter reading every six months to a year.

Regardless of what your water supplier may request, we would recommend submitting a water meter reading every 3 months at minimum.

Submitting your reading monthly is ideal as you will be able to curb any sudden high usage quickly as well as spot any potential water leaks sooner.

Can I Have A Water Meter Removed?

If you decided to have a water meter installed, your bills have been coming in and you realize this was not the best option for you, you may wish to have it uninstalled. So, can you come off a water meter? This depends on the following criteria:

  • Yes! If your water meter has been installed within the last year and you have changed your mind. Some providers like Severn Trent Water will even give you as much as a 24 month grace period to change back.

  • No! If you move into a new property and a water meter is installed. Also no, if you requested the change and your grace period of 12 or 24 months have passed.

Despite these grace periods, it is recommended that you first calculate if you will obtain savings or not by having a water meter installed.

Is It Cheaper To Have A Water Meter Installed?

On average, people who have a water meter installed use 31.7% less water* than people who are on an unmetered water rate.

This staggering number is great for water preservation and your water supplier. However, it doesn’t necessarily mean you will save 31% on your water bill by having a water meter installed.

In many instances, unmetered water rates can still be preferable to having a water meter installed and provide you with more savings on your water bill. This is especially true for large families, undervalued homes, and large consumption homes.

The only way to determine ahead of time if it is cheaper to have a water meter installed or not is by doing the math. Using a water meter calculator can help you answer this question.

What Is Rateable Value?

Households that are unmetered are billed on the basis of the rateable value of their property. Rateable value was a principle on which council rates were once calculated up until 1990. Although this system is now defunct, it is still used by water companies to provide unmetered water bills. Rateable value is an assessment based on the condition, age and size of a property, and is used to provide a generalised annual water bill.

Water Meter Calculators

If you are wondering whether you should install a water meter or not, you may want to calculate if it will bring you savings or not first.

The Consumer Council for Water (CCW) has a great water meter calculator to do such analysis.

Enter the following simple details in the water meter calculator and it will give your new water bill price if you get a water meter installed. The items you need to enter are:

(Video) Welsh Water Guide Water Meters Explained

  1. Your water supplier
  2. Your sewerage supplier
  3. How many people inhabit the home
  4. How many baths your home takes per week
  5. How many showers your home takes per week
  6. How many times do you flush the toilet per day
  7. How many washing machine loads do you do per week
  8. How many dishwasher loads do you do per week
  9. How many hours do you use a garden hose in a year

While this is not an exact science, a water meter calculator will quickly give you a good estimate of your water bill under a water meter system.

Quick TipFor a more accurate estimate, take note of the water usage for these items for a week rather than entering random ‘guesstimates’. You may be surprised at how many times you actually flush the toilet every day!

How Much Will I Save With A Water Meter?

Have a look at the following yearly estimated cost with a water meter of a few common water suppliers using the CCW water meter calculator:

Yearly estimated cost with a water meter
ScenarioFour-person home*Two-person home**
Thames Water Meter£515.69£240.35
United Utilities Water Meter£650.12£295.71
Yorkshire Water Meter£639.67£277.32
Dr Cymru Welsh Water Meter£672.92£348.47

*The four-person home scenario includes two baths per week, 24 showers per week, 10 flushes per day, three washing machine loads per week, seven dishwasher uses per week, 50 hours of garden hose use a year, include surface water charges
**The two-person home scenario includes 1 bath per week, 12 showers per week, 4 flushes per day, 2 washing machine loads per week, 4 dishwasher use per week, 0 hours of garden hose use a year, include surface water charges

You can then quickly take your estimated amount from the water meter calculator, compare it with your current water bill and immediately see if having a water meter installation will bring you savings or not.

What Are The Disadvantages Of Having A Water Meter?

In general, having a water meter installed does seem appealing, but there are some disadvantages to consider as well. Here are just a few:

  • It doesn’t necessarily lower the cost of your water bill.
  • Having to regularly send in water meter readings can be a hassle for some people.
  • Unless you are willing to pay, you do not choose the location of your water meter installation.
  • You will need to monitor your water usage and be more careful of your water consumption to keep your total bill cost reasonable.

Water Meter Installation Details

After completing all of the above steps (such as measuring your home’s usage and estimating your future cost), you may now have decided to go ahead and request a water meter installation.

Here are the simple steps you will need to follow to have your water meter installed:

  1. Fill out an application form with your water supplier requesting the water meter installation. Many suppliers have this form directly online.
  2. Your supplier will send an engineer to survey the property. Most suppliers will try to install the water meter outdoors. If they cannot and need to install the meter indoors, they may try to install it immediately during the survey process.
  3. If your supplier can install the water meter outdoors, they will usually need to come back after the survey to do the installation. This is because a permit is often required from public works for them to carry out the installation outdoors.
  4. Once it is fitted, your water supplier will advise you of the completion of the water meter installation and your account will be updated accordingly.
  5. The entire process can take up to three months, so don't expect this to be an instantaneous change.

The nice thing with a water meter installation is that, in most cases, since the installation is outdoors, you do not need to take a day off work to be at home that day.

It is important to note that your water supply will be turned off during the water meter installation. This usually ranges between 20-30 minutes depending on the complexity of your water meter location.

Water Meter Installation Cost

For England and Wales, the water meter installation is free of cost. You only need to pay for a water meter installation if you ask for the water meter to be installed at a different location than what the water supplier survey suggests.

If you live in Scotland, a water meter installation will cost you £300. This is because Scotland has a different water regulator from the rest of the UK. Where the UK has Ofwat Scotland's water industry is regulated by the Water Industry Commission for Scotland (WICS).

Scots definitely understands the importance of using a good water meter calculator before requesting a water meter installation!

Smart Water Meters In The UK

Smart water meters (sometimes referred to as water smart meters) function similarly to electricity and gas smart meters.

Smart water meters are intended to show you your water consumption up to an hourly breakdown so that you can monitor your consumption.

(Video) How to read your water meter

It is said that smart water meters can reduce an entire town’s consumption by an average of 8%*, which certainly helps to save the environment.

To find out more about smart water meters, check out our smart water meter complete guide.

*Source: Anglian Water

Can You Get A Smart Meter For Water?

Some water suppliers are making smart water meters compulsory, so in those regions, mainly the South East of England, you can expect your water supplier to contact you for your smart water meter installation.

In most other regions of the UK, however, standard water meters are continuing to be installed. This includes Scotland, where you have to pay to have a water meter installed.

The cost of these smart water meters continues to be too high for the benefits they will bring in the Northern regions.

Are Smart Water Meters Compulsory?

Since each region has its water supplied by a different company, whether a smart water meter is compulsory or not in the UK currently depends on where you live.

Water Meters in the UK: Your Essential Guide (5)

The stress, or high water demand, in some counties is forcing some suppliers to make smart water meters compulsory. This is in the hopes to decrease water consumption and, therefore, lower the stress and increasing water demand in some regions.

Thames Water and Anglian Water are making smart water meters compulsory. It is expected that these will help locate water leaks quicker, thus decreasing the loss of water.

Southern Water has made water meter installation compulsory for a few years already. It is unclear, however, if these water meters are smart water meters or standard water meters.

Most other water suppliers in the UK continue to leave the choice to their consumers on whether or not to have a water meter installed. As previously mentioned, most appear to be installing standard water meters and not smart water meters.

Smart Water Meters For Business

Having a smart water meter installed is a completely separate issue if you run a business. First of all, contrary to residential water meters, businesses can choose a water supplier.

This makes not only having a water meter installation important, but also choosing your water supplier important.

Is A Smart Water Meter A Good Idea?

Whether it is for a business or your home, opting for a smart water meter definitely has its benefits. We look at the pros and cons below:

Pros and cons of a smart water meter
Monitor water consumption as precisely as hourly usage.Can be a hassle to repair if defective.
Automatic transmission of your water meter readings to your water supplier.Consume a little bit of energy and therefore raise that cost versus a standard water meter.
Helps you notice water leaks sooner.In some cases, having a metered water rate instead of an unmetered rate can be costlier.

Still have some questions regarding water meters? Have a look at our average water bill guide.

(Video) How to find your water meter

Unsure who your water supplier is? Browse who supplies my water page.


Are water meters compulsory in the UK 2022? ›

Big Zero Report 2022

According to The Telegraph, homeowners who refuse to install a smart meter will be put on a more expensive flat rate. An Ofwat spokesperson told ELN: “We have pushed companies to cut leakage, issuing leakage challenges during the past price review, and we will continue to do so.

Does everyone have a water meter UK? ›

A water company is not obliged to install a meter in response to a customer's request if it is not reasonably practicable to do so, or if it is unreasonably expensive.

Are water meters compulsory in England? ›

You have a right to be charged for your water on the basis of what you use. This means you have a right to have a meter installed free of charge, unless it's not practical or is unreasonably expensive to do this. Tenants also have the right to ask for a meter if their tenancy agreement is for six months or longer.

How do I read my water meter UK? ›

On the meter face there are two sets of numbers, black on the left and red on the right. The black numbers show the number of cubic metres used, while the red ones and the dials show litres. When submitting a meter reading, only read the black numbers and ignore the red numbers (one cubic metre = 1,000 litres).

Do I legally have to accept a water meter? ›

While in theory meters aren't compulsory, a water company can insist you have one installed if you fall into one of the following groups: Use an automatic watering device (such as a garden sprinkler) Automatically fill a swimming pool or pond. Have a large bath.

Is it cheaper to have a water meter UK? ›

A water meter means you only pay for the water you use. So that could mean significant savings for your household, or bigger bills – which of course you want to avoid at all costs. If you don't have a water meter, you pay a fixed price for your water. It doesn't matter how much water you use, your bill won't change.

Does my property have a water meter UK? ›

You can check if you're on a water meter by referring to your latest bill. If you see a section on the second page showing a meter serial number and meter reads then you're on a meter. Internal meters are usually located in the kitchen, airing cupboard or bathroom.

What percentage of UK homes have a water meter? ›

More than 60 per cent of households have a water meter installed.

Who is responsible for water meter UK? ›

Under the Codes (in Section 4 of the Business Terms) which govern the water market, the Wholesaler is responsible for the maintenance and repair of the meter, and for recording the relevant information to ensure you are charged correctly.

What happens if you don't want a water meter? ›

If you don't have a water meter, you will pay an unmeasured charge. This is often made up of a standing charge and a charge that varies. You can have an unmeasured charge based on one of these things: a flat rate charge.

Can Thames Water force me to have a meter? ›

Thames is within its rights to insist on installing a water meter on the basis that the area it covers is deemed to be in an “area of serious water stress”. This gives it the right to install one.

Are smart meters mandatory in UK? ›

You don't have to accept a smart meter if you don't want one. If your supplier tells you that you must have one installed, contact the Citizens Advice consumer helpline. If you refuse a smart meter, you might find it hard to access all tariffs.

What are the units on a water meter UK? ›

What are the units on a water meter? In the UK our water meters (whether digital or analogue) most often show cubic meters of water usage at a property, usually the black numbers on a meter. Each cubic metre (M³) is made up of 1,000 litres which are the red numbers to the right of the water meter dial.

What are the red numbers on water meter UK? ›

To read your meter, simply read the black and white numbers from left to right – the black numbers represent kilolitres (1,000 litres) and the red numbers represent litres.

Does a water meter affect property value? ›

It could affect future sale of the property.

If it's a family-sized home, future buyers may be put off by the potential cost of having a water meter as you can't switch to non-metered supply if the property already has a meter installed when you buy it.

Can I get rid of a water meter? ›

You must not remove it or instruct anyone else to remove it for you under any circumstances. It is a contravention of the Water Act (as stated in section 175 of the Water Industry Act 1991) and can be a criminal offence to interfere with, wilfully damage or remove the meter.

Can you request to come off a water meter? ›

Yes, if you've applied to switch to a water meter and change your mind within 24 months of the meter being fitted you can go back to being billed on an unmetered charge.

What is the average water bill per month in UK? ›

Water will cost you, according to Water UK average annual combined water and sewage is £408 a year, or £34 a month in 2021/22. This is made up of an average of £194 for the water bill and £204 for the sewage bill. Obviously, the amount you pay will vary depending on where you live.

How much does it cost to have a water meter installed UK? ›

The installation of the water meter is free of charge, providing the meter can be fitted in our preferred location. The time it takes to fit a meter depends on where it will be and the demand for them. If it takes us longer than 90 days to fit your meter, we'll make sure your metered charges start from the 90th day.

How often do you pay water bill UK? ›

Every six months, we'll send you a bill that covers the supply of clean water and the treatment of wastewater. Your bill will show charges for every cubic meter (m3) of water that's used. One cubic meter equals: 1,000 litres.

Is everyone getting a water meter? ›

We're fitting compulsory water meters for all our customers. We'll write to you when we're going to be fitting meters in your area.

Does my house have a water meter Wessex water? ›

If you don't find it outside, it may be inside your home - either under the sink or near the stop tap. If you live in a flat or or apartment, you might find your water meter and stop tap in a cabinet inside the building. Your meter should be marked with your flat number.

Where are water meters usually located UK? ›

Most water meters are fitted outside near your outside stop tap. It will be under a small metal or plastic cover in your driveway, garden or nearby footpath. Sometimes these can be a bit further down the road. If your meter is indoors it can usually be found under the kitchen sink by your inside stop tap.

Do new builds have water meters UK? ›

All new build properties built since 1991, for example, have water meters installed at the time of construction. This is a legal requirement in line with the Water Industry Act and cannot be reversed.

What is the average UK household water usage? ›

Each person uses about 142 litres of water each day. The average household uses 349 litres of water each day1. The average annual metered water bill is £4272.

How often should a water meter be replaced? ›

Water meters and their registers often lose accuracy as they age; therefore, they must be replaced every 15 to 20 years.

What is the life expectancy of a water meter? ›

The typical useful life for a water meter is 15 to 20 years. Older meters tend to be less accurate and more prone to maintenance issues.

Why can't British gas give smart meters? ›

Sometimes our engineers face issues during the installation and smart meters can't be installed on the day. This could be because there isn't enough room to get near the existing meters, cupboards or objects may have been built around the meters or there isn't enough space to fit the new smart meters.

Can I refuse to get a smart meter? ›

Do you have to get a smart meter installed? No, smart meters are not compulsory. If you'd prefer not to have a smart meter you can refuse, although you'd miss out on all the benefits they offer. To opt out of getting a smart meter, you need to contact the ESB Network and provide your MPRN .

What percentage of homes have smart meters in UK? ›

Collectively across both large and small energy suppliers, there were 26.1 million smart meters in domestic properties in Great Britain at the end of 2021; 50% of all domestic meters.

What are the basic units of water? ›

There are two basic units of water measurement from a water management perspective. For water that is in motion, cubic feet per second (cfs) is the unit of measure. For water that is stored or impounded, the acre-foot (af) is how water is measured.

Are there different types of water meters? ›

Water meters of different types are available in the market – Positive Displacement, Electromagnetic, Ultrasonic, Single and Multi-jet and Turbine flow meters.

What does 5/8 mean on a water meter? ›

5/8" Water Meter (also referred to as 5/8" x 1/2") A 5/8" water meter has a 5/8" water flow capacity. The bore of the meter is generally 5/8". a 5/8" meter does not have 5/8" threads. It has 1/2" AWWA Meter Threads and typically hooks up to a 1/2" or smaller water service line.

What do the black numbers mean on a water meter? ›

The black numbers on white reflect the number of billing units that have passed through the meter. 1 unit = 748 gallons this means that every time this number increases 748 gallons of water has gone through the meter.

What does the red needle mean on a water meter? ›

Sweep Hand: The large red needle on the dial measures water use in cubic feet. The markings at the outer edge of the dial indicate tenths and hundredths of one cubic foot. A complete rotation of the sweep hand equals one cubic foot of water (7.48 gallons). The sweep hand does not move if water is not moving through it.

What is the most common water meter? ›

Displacement water meters, often called Positive Displacement (PD) meters, are the most common water meters for residential and small commercial properties. They're great for measuring small volumes of water at low flow rates.

What is 1 unit on a water meter? ›

Water meters measure cubic feet of water used. To convert cubic feet to gallons, multiply the number of cubic feet by 7.48. CCWD measures water use by units for billing purposes: 1 unit of water billed = 100 cubic feet = 748 gallons.

What does it mean when your water meter is full of water? ›

Standing water: If you walk out to your water meter and notice the area around it is wet and soggy, or you see standing water and puddles, then you have a leak with the water from the main line coming into your home.

Are smart meters going to be compulsory in the UK? ›

Smart meters aren't compulsory, but the government roll-out means that every home in Britain will be offered a smart meter by the end of 2025. Whether you're a homeowner, tenant or have a prepaid meter, your energy supplier is responsible for providing and installing a smart meter for you at no extra charge.

Do houses have water meters UK? ›

Yes. If you need help to pay we've a range of options that may help you. All properties built since 1990 have been fitted with a meter.

Can I come off a water meter UK? ›

Changing your mind

If you have a meter installed, you have two years in which you can request to have the meter removed. Your charges will then revert back to being unmeasured charges. If your property already had a water meter installed before it was purchased or rented then the water meter cannot be removed.

What happens if I refuse a water meter? ›

If you refuse, the company will put you on its “no access” higher charge which is currently £602 a year – so it's almost certainly time to give in and get it installed.

What are the disadvantages of water meters? ›

Cons of Water Metering

Customers would be required to pay for all water used (as indicated by the meter reading), even if some of it was lost due to leaks. Families with above-average water consumption would likely spend more on water if they utilize a volume-based water meter as opposed to paying a flat monthly rate.

Can I refuse a smart meter UK? ›

Refusing a smart meter

You don't have to accept a smart meter if you don't want one. If your supplier tells you that you must have one installed, contact the Citizens Advice consumer helpline. If you refuse a smart meter, you might find it hard to access all tariffs.


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